Definition: Defining the Meaning of Universal Design
(Inclusive design) - Refers to broad-spectrum ideas meant to produce buildings, products and environments that are inherently accessible to older people, people without disabilities, and people with disabilities. Universal design emerged from slightly earlier barrier-free concepts, the broader accessibility movement, and adaptive and assistive technology and also seeks to blend aesthetics into these core considerations.
Universal design is an approach to the design of all products and environments to be as usable as possible by as many people as possible regardless of age, ability, or situation.
Universal design is a relatively new paradigm that emerged from "barrier-free" or "accessible design" and "assistive technology." Other terms for Universal Design used around the world include Design For All, Inclusive Design, and Barrier-Free Design. Terminology and meanings differ from one country to another.
Universal design differs from accessibility requirements in that accessibility requirements are usually prescriptive whereas universal design is performance based. Universal design does not have standards or requirements but addresses usability issues such as accessible home design for seniors and persons with a disability.
Rather than focus on adapting things for individuals at a later time, an accessible universally designed learning environments are created to be accessible to everyone from the beginning. When designers apply universal design principles, their products and services meet the needs of potential users with a wide variety of characteristics. Disability is just one of many characteristics that an individual might possess.
Barrier free design and assistive technology provide a level of accessibility for people with disabilities but they also often result in separate and stigmatizing solutions, for example, a ramp that leads to a different entry to a building than a main stairway.
Universal Design takes into account the full range of human diversity, including physical, perceptual and cognitive abilities, as well as different body sizes and shapes. By designing for this diversity, we can create things that are more functional and more user-friendly for everyone. For instance, curb cuts at sidewalks were initially designed for people who use wheelchairs, but they are now also used by pedestrians with strollers or rolling luggage. Curb cuts have added functionality to sidewalks that we can all benefit from.
Universal design strives to be a broad-spectrum solution that helps everyone, not just people with disabilities.
Universal design is assuming growing importance as a new paradigm that represents a holistic and integrated approach to design ranging in scale, for example, from product design to architecture and urban design, and from simple systems such as those that control the ambient environment to complex information technologies.
Universal design is an approach to the design of all products and environments to be usable by everyone, to the greatest extent possible, regardless of age, ability, or situation. It serves people who are young or old, with excellent or limited abilities, in ideal or difficult circumstances. Universal design benefits everyone by accommodating limitations.
As the worlds population ages, so does the demand for senior appropriate homes, renovations, and assistive devices. Universal design can help builders and re-modelers address the needs of their older clients, and builders focused on building houses for every need.
Centers for Universal Design provide information, technical assistance, and research center that evaluates, develops, and promotes accessible and universal design in housing, commercial and public facilities, outdoor environments, and products.
The seven Principles that describe characteristics that make designs universally usable are:
- Equitable Use
- Flexibility in Use
- Low Physical Effort
- Perceptible Information
- Simple and Intuitive Use
- Size and Space for Approach and Use
- Tolerance for Error
As life expectancy rises and modern medicine has increased the survival rate of those with significant injuries, illnesses and birth defects, there is a growing interest in universal design. There are many industries in which universal design is having strong market penetration but there are many others in which it has not yet been adopted to any great extent.
In order to design for the general population, it is important to understand diversity, problems, tools, and abilities.
Quick Facts: Design for All
The origin of Design for All lies in the field of barrier free accessibility for people with disabilities and the broader notion of universal design. The term Design for All (DfA) is used to describe a design philosophy targeting the use of products, services and systems by as many people as possible without the need for adaptation. "Design for All is design for human diversity, social inclusion and equality" (EIDD Stockholm Declaration, 2004). According to the European Commission, it "encourages manufacturers and service providers to produce new technologies for everyone: technologies that are suitable for the elderly and people with disabilities.