Just a run of one and half hour from Chhindwara district of Madhya Pradesh, you will reach Patalkot (patalkot.tripod.com), a deep valley surrounded by hills all around. Bharia and Gond tribes are living here for hundreds of years. They have their own life style, ritual and traditions. They have medicinal plants for curing various ailments. They are having vast knowledge in curing their disorders. Gond and Bharias are main inhabitants in the forests of Chhindwara. Ths series of article deals with the herbal treatments of tribals of central India. Authors have explored the area of Patalkot valley that includes- Gaildubbha, Kareyam, Rathed, Ghatlinga, Gudichhathri, Karrapani, Tamia, Bharia Dhana, Bijauri, Pandu Piparia, Sajkui, Lahgadua, Karrapani, Sidhouli, Chhindi, Jaitpur, Chimtipur and Harra-ka-Char.
The current article is on herbal medicine for curing Stones in Urinary Tract. Tribals collect herbs and prepare medicine by their own. The aim of the current article is to document their knowledge and share it with the modern world. It is advised to take proper guidance from your family doctor before taking this formulation.
Combination of herbs viz., Tribulus terrestris, Zingiber officinale, Solanum virginiaum, Crataeva nurvala, Tinospora cordifolia, Asparagus racemosus and Tephrosia purpurea.
Drug Preparation:Tribulus terrestris fruits (2 1/2 tbsp), Zingiber officinale roots (1 tbsp), Solanum virginiaum whole plant (1 tbsp), Crataeva nurvala bark ( 2 1/2 tbsp), Tinospora cordifolia stems (1 tbsp), Asparagus racemosus roots (1 tbsp), Tephrosia purpurea leaves (1 tbsp).
Dosage: About 1 teaspoon powder should be given to the patient, twice a day with water.
1. Tribulus terrestris Linn. (Land-caltrops, Puncture-vine)
Sanskrit- Gokshura, Ikshugancdha; Hindi- Gokhru; Bengali & Oriya- Gakhura, Gokshra; Marathi- Lahangokhru, Sarala, Sharatte; Gujarati- Betagokhru, Mithagokhru, Nahanagokhru; Telugu- Chinnipalleru, Chirupalleru, Pallerukayalu (fruits); Tamil & Malayalam- Nerunji, Nerinjeekai (fruits); Kannada- Sanna neggilu; Ladakh- Rasha, Kokulla; Punjabi- Lotak, Bakhra; Rajasthani- Gokhatri, Gokhru-bara, Kanti, Gokhrusdesi
A variable, prostrate annual, up to 90 cm. in length, commonly found throughout India, up to an altitude of 5,400 m. Roots slender, cylindrical, somewhat fibrous, 10-15 cm. long, light brown and faintly aromatic; leaves paripinnate: leaflets 5-8 pairs, subequal, oblong to linear-oblong; flowers leaf-opposed, solitary, pale-yellow to yellow; fruits globose, consisting of 5-12 woody cocci, each with 2 pairs of hard, sharp, divaricate spines, one pair longer than the other; seeds several in each coccus with transverse partitions between them (WOA. 1997).
2. Zingiber officinaleRosc. (Ginger)
Sanskrit- Ardraka; Hindi- Adrak, Ada; Bengali- Ada; Marathi- Ale; Telugu-Allamu, Sonthi; Tamil- Allam,Inji; Kannada- Hasisunti; Malayalam- Andrakam, Inchi
A herbaceous, rhizomatous perennial, reaching up to 90 cm. in height under cultivation. Rhizomes are aromatic, thick-lobed, pale yellowish, differing in shape and size in the different cultivated types. The herb develops several lateral shoots in clumps which begin to dry when the plant matures. Leaves narrow, distichous, sub-sessile, linear-lanceolate, 17.0 cm. x 1.8 cm., dark green, evenly narrowed to form a slender tip, flowers in spikes, greenish yellow with a small dark purple or purplish black tip (WOA. 1997).
3. Solanum virginiaum L. Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad & Wendle, S. surattense Burm. f. (Yellow berried, Nightshade)
Hindi- Kateli; Sanskrit- Kantkari, Duhusparsha, Nidigdhika
A very prickly perennial herb, somewhat woody at base. Stem: much branched, clothed with dense, stellate and tomentose hairs when young; prickles compressed, straight, glabrous, shining, often 1-3 cm long. Leaves: ovate or elliptic, sinuate or sub pinnatifid, obtuse or sub acute, stellately hairy on both sides, armed on the midrib and often on the nerves with long yellow sharp prickles; petiole long, stellately hairy and prickly. Flowers: in cymes or some times reduced as solitary; calyx tube short, globose; lobes linear-lanceolate, acute, densely hairy and prickly; corolla purple; lobes deltoid, acute, hairy outside; filament long, glabrous; ovary ovoid, glabrous. Fruit: berry yellow, green-blotched and surrounded by enlarged calyx. Seeds: glabrous (WOA. 1997).
4. Crataeva nurvala Buch.- Ham. syn. C. religiosa Hook. f. & Thoms.
Sanskrit- Varuna, Asmarighna; Hindi- Barna, Bilasi; Bengali- Barun; Marathi- Vayavarna, Haravarna; Tamil- Maralingam.
A moderate sized deciduous tree, upto 5 m high. Leaves 3-foliate; leaflets 3-6 x 1-3 cm, ovate-lanceolate, acute to acuminate, narrowed to base; petioles upto 6 cm long. Flowers greenish-white, in few-flowered, terminal and lateral corymbs. Stamens numerous, white, turning purplish. Stigma knob-shaped. Berries upto 4 cm in diam., subglobose or ovate-oblong, smooth, yellow or red (WOA. 1997).
5. Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers ex Hook. f. & Thoms. (Gulancha, Tinospora)
Sanskrit- Amrita, Guluchi, Jwarari; Hindi- Amrita, Giloe, Gulancha, Gulbel, Guloh, Gurcha, Jiwantika; Bengali- Golancha; Marathi & Gujarati- Gulvel; Telugu- Tippateege; Tamil- Amudem chindil; Kannada- Amrutoballi, Madhuparne, Uganiballi; Malayalam- Amrytu, Chittamritam; Oriya- Culochi.
A large, glabrous, deciduous climbing shrub found throughout tropical India, ascending to an altitude of 300m. Stems rather succulent with long filiform fleshy aerial roots from the branches. Bark grey-brown or creamy white, warty; leaves membranous, cordate with a broad sinus; flowers small, yellow or greenish yellow, appearing when the plant is leafless, in axillary and terminal racemes or racemose panicles; male flowers clustered and females usually solitary; drupes ovoid, glossy, succulent, red, pea-sized; seeds curved (WOA. 1997).
6. Asparagus racemosus Willd. (Shatavar)
Bengali- Shatamuli; Gujarati- Ekalkanto, Satavari; Hindi- Chatwal, Satawar, Satmuli, Shakakul; Kannada- Aheruballi, Ashadhi, Majjigegadde, Sipariberuballi; Malayalam- Chatavali, Satavari; Marathi- Asvel, Shatavari, Shatmuli; Oriya- Chhotaru, Mohajolo, Sotabori; Sanskrit- Satavari; Tamil- Ammaikodi, Inli-chedi, Kadumulla, Shimai-shadavari; Telugu- Pilli-gaddalu, Toalb-gaddalu; Madhya Pradesh- Narbodh, Satmooli; Rajasthan- Norkanto, Satawar
An extensively scandent, much-branched, spinous under-shrub, with tuberous, short rootstock bearing numerous fusiform, succulent tuberous roots 30-100 cm long and 1-2 cm thick, found growing wild in tropical and sub-tropical parts of India including the Andamans; and ascending in the Himalayas up to an altitude of 1,500 m. Stems woody, whitish grey or brown armed with strong, straight or recurved spines 5-13 mm long; cladodes more or less acicular, 2-6 nate, falcate, finely acuminate; leaves reduced to sub-erect or sub-recurved spines; flowers white, fragrant, small, profuse in simple or branched racemes up to 7 cm long; berries globose, scarlet, trilobed, 4-6 mm in diam (WOA, 1997).
7. Tephrosia purpureaPers. (Wild Indigo)
Sanskrit- Sharapunkha; Hindi- Dhamasia, Sarphonka; Bengali- Ban-nil-gachh; Marathi- Sirapakha, udhadi, Un- hali; Gujarati- Ghodakan, Jhila, Sarphankho; Telugu-Vempali, Neelavempali, Bontavempali; Tamil- Kolingi, Paavali, Kat kolingi, Kolluk-kay-velai; Kannada- Empali, Vajaraneeli, Koggili; Malayalam- Kozhenjil, Kaata miri; Oriya- Kolothiyapokha, Mohisiakolothiga, Pokha, Soropokha, Punjabi- Bansa-bansu, Jhojhru.
A polymorphic, much-branched, suberect, perennial herb, 30-60 cm. high, found throughout India, ascending to an altitude of 1,850 m. in the Himalayas. Leaves imparipinnate, 5-15 cm. long: leaflets 9-21, narrow, oblanceolate, glabrous above, obscurely silky below; flowers red or purple, in leaf-opposed racemes; pods slightly recurved, 3.7-5.0 cm.x 4.0 mm., glabrescent; seeds 5-10, greenish gray, smooth (WOA, 1997).
WOA. 1997. Wealth of Asia (AHEAD).
About the Authors:
Dr Deepak Acharya: He is the Executive Director of an herbal formulation company in Ahmedabad, India. He has been documenting ethnobotanical knowledge of tribals of Central and Western India since long. He has written 30 research papers in National and International journals of repute. He writes popular articles for web and magazines.
Dr Garima Sancheti: She is PhD (alumnus) in the field of Radiation and Cancer Biology from Department of Zoology (University of Rajasthan, India). She has to her credit various research papers in scientific journals as well as articles on web.
Dr Anshu Shrivastava:He is a Botanist and PhD from BSI- Jodhpur, currently working as Research Associate in SRISTI- Ahmedabad. He has written several popular articles and research papers on the medicinal plants and regional flora.
Dr Sanjay Pawar:He is a PhD from Department of Botany, Govt PG College, Chhindwara, Madhya Pradesh. He has to have credit to work in the Patalkot valley for a long time. He visits Patalkot for scouting of tribal knowledge.
Dr Surendra Bhade:He is PhD in Botany and currently serving as a teacher in a middle school in Chimtipur, Patalkot. He has been involved in awareness generation activities among the local inhabitants of Patalkot.