- Transradial Prosthesis - A transradial prosthesis is an artificial limb that replaces an arm missing below the elbow. Two main types of prosthetics are available. Cable operated limbs work by attaching a harness and cable around the opposite shoulder of the damaged arm. The other form of prosthetics available are myoelectric arms. These work by sensing, via electrodes, when the muscles in the upper arm moves, causing an artificial hand to open or close.
- Transhumeral Prosthesis - A transhumeral prosthesis is an artificial limb that replaces an arm missing above the elbow. Transhumeral amputees experience some of the same problems as transfemoral amputees, due to the similar complexities associated with the movement of the elbow. This makes mimicking the correct motion with an artificial limb very difficult.
- Transtibial Prosthesis - A transtibial prosthesis is an artificial limb that replaces a leg missing below the knee. Transtibial amputees are usually able to regain normal movement more readily than someone with a transfemoral amputation, due in large part to retaining the knee, which allows for easier movement.
- Transfemoral Prosthesis - A transfemoral prosthesis is an artificial limb that replaces a leg missing above the knee. Transfemoral amputees can have a very difficult time regaining normal movement. In general, a transfemoral amputee must use approximately 80% more energy to walk than a person with two whole legs. This is due to the complexities in movement associated with the knee. In newer and more improved designs, after employing hydraulics, carbon fiber, mechanical linkages, motors, computer microprocessors, and innovative combinations of these technologies to give more control to the user.
Other less prevalent lower extremity cases include:
- Knee disarticulations - This usually refers to an amputation through the knee dis-articulating the femur from the tibia.
- Knee disarticulations - This usually refers to an amputation through the knee dis articulating the femur from the tibia.
- Symes - This is an ankle disarticulation while preserving the heel pad.
There are several areas of technology that have advanced significantly in recent years and are showing considerable potential. Robotic limbs and direct bone attachment are two new technologies that have made tremendous gains recently.
Amputee Awareness Ribbon
April has been designated as "Limb Loss Awareness Month."
A main purpose behind the designation is to provide an opportunity to educate society about amputees living in the community.
Though not officially adopted, a friend of the Amputee Coalition's Facebook page submitted the amputee awareness ribbon pictured here.
Quick Facts: Prosthetics
Prosthetics have been mentioned throughout history. The earliest recorded mention is the warrior queen Vishpala in the Rigveda. The Egyptians were early pioneers of the idea, as shown by the wooden toe found on a body from the New Kingdom. Roman bronze crowns have also been found, but their use could have been more aesthetic than medical. With advances in medical science, a few experimental prostheses have been integrated with body tissues, including the nervous system. These highly advanced devices can respond to commands from the central nervous system, more closely approximating normal movement and utility than older prostheses.
100 Year History of Ottobock Prosthetic Legs - Ottobock - (2014-09-09)
Statistics: U.S. Limb Loss
- One in 190 Americans is currently living with the loss of a limb. Unchecked, this number may double by the year 2050. In the year 2005, 1.6 million persons were living with the loss of a limb. Of these subjects, 42% were nonwhite and 38% had an amputation secondary to dysvascular disease with a comorbid diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. It is projected that the number of people living with the loss of a limb will more than double by the year 2050 to 3.6 million. If incidence rates secondary to dysvascular disease can be reduced by 10%, this number would be lowered by 225,000.
- In 2007, there are approximately 1.7 million persons living with limb loss in the U.S. (Unpublished paper from Johns Hopkins)
- The main cause of acquired limb loss is poor circulation in a limb due to arterial disease, with more than half of all amputations occurring among people with diabetes mellitus.
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