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Prostheses and Prosthetics: Artificial Limbs News and Information

  • Synopsis: Last Revised/Updated: 2017-06-26 - Examines various types of artificial limbs called prostheses including recent research and developments in prosthetics.

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Rudimentary prostheses have been used since antiquity, to replace missing limbs, teeth, etc.; their use and sophistication has increased over time. In addition to the standard artificial limb for every-day use, many amputees or congenital patients have special limbs and devices to aid in the participation of sports and recreational activities.

Prosthetic: An artificial substitute or replacement of a part of the body such as a tooth, eye, a facial bone, the palate, a hip, a knee or another joint, the leg, an arm, etc. A prosthesis is designed for functional or cosmetic reasons or both. Typical prostheses for joints are the hip, knee, elbow, ankle, and finger joints. Prosthetic implants can be parts of the joint such as a unilateral knee. Joint replacement and arthroplasty mean the same thing.

A prosthesis is an artificial extension that replaces a missing body part. It is part of the field of biomechatronics, the science of fusing mechanical devices with human muscle, skeleton, and nervous systems to assist or enhance motor control lost by trauma, disease, or defect.

An artificial limb is a type of prosthesis that replaces a missing extremity, such as arms or legs. The type of artificial limb used is determined largely by the extent of an amputation or loss and location of the missing extremity. Artificial limbs may be needed for a variety of reasons, including disease, accidents, and congenital defects. Inside the body, artificial heart valves are in common use with artificial hearts and lungs seeing less common use but under active technology development. Other medical devices and aids that can be considered prosthetics include artificial eyes, palatal obturator, gastric bands, and dentures.

In recent years there have been significant advancements in artificial limbs. New plastics and other materials, such as carbon fiber, have allowed artificial limbs to be stronger and lighter, limiting the amount of extra energy necessary to operate the limb. With advances in modern technology, cosmesis, the creation of life-like limbs made from silicone or PVC, has been made possible. Such prosthetics, such as artificial hands, can now be made to mimic the appearance of real hands, complete with freckles, veins, hair, fingerprints and even tattoos. Cosmeses are attached to the body in any number of ways, using an adhesive, suction, form-fitting, stretchable skin, or a skin sleeve.

There are four main types of artificial limbs:

These include the transtibial, transfemoral, transradial, and transhumeral prostheses. The type of prosthesis depends on what part of the limb is missing.

C-leg prosthesis
C-leg prosthesis

Other less prevalent lower extremity cases include:

There are several areas of technology that have advanced significantly in recent years and are showing considerable potential. Robotic limbs and direct bone attachment are two new technologies that have made tremendous gains recently.

Amputee Awareness Ribbon

Amputee awareness ribbonApril has been designated as "Limb Loss Awareness Month."

A main purpose behind the designation is to provide an opportunity to educate society about amputees living in the community.

Though not officially adopted, a friend of the Amputee Coalition's Facebook page submitted the amputee awareness ribbon pictured here.

Quick Facts: Prosthetics

Prosthetics have been mentioned throughout history. The earliest recorded mention is the warrior queen Vishpala in the Rigveda. The Egyptians were early pioneers of the idea, as shown by the wooden toe found on a body from the New Kingdom. Roman bronze crowns have also been found, but their use could have been more aesthetic than medical. With advances in medical science, a few experimental prostheses have been integrated with body tissues, including the nervous system. These highly advanced devices can respond to commands from the central nervous system, more closely approximating normal movement and utility than older prostheses.


100 Year History of Ottobock Prosthetic Legs - Ottobock - (2014-09-09)
https://www.disabled-world.com/assistivedevices/prostheses/100yrs.php

Statistics: U.S. Limb Loss

Latest Prostheses and Prosthetics Publications
1 : Prosthetic Arms Stimulate Nerves with Controlled Sensory Feedback : University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
2 : Students Create 3D Printed Robot Prosthetic Limb for Amputees : University of Manchester.
3 : New Wearable Technology May Hold Big Benefits for People With Parkinson's Disease : University of Western Ontario.
4 : Prosthetic Limbs Represented Like Hands in Brain : University College London.
5 : Amputees Can Learn to Control Robotic Arm with Mind Power : University of Chicago Medical Center.
Click Here for Full List - (66 Items)


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