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Blood Type Chart: Facts and Information on Blood Group Types

Outline: Information regarding blood types including charts outlining donor compatibility and childs blood group from parents blood type. A blood type (also called a blood group) is defined as the classification of blood based on the presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs). There are eight different common blood types, which are determined by the presence or absence of certain antigens, which are substances that can trigger an immune response if they are foreign to the human body.

Main Digest

When a person's blood is analyzed under a microscope distinct blood differences are visible. In the early 20th century, an Austrian scientist named Karl Landsteiner classified blood according to those differences. Landsteiner observed two distinct chemical molecules present on the surface of the red blood cells. He labeled one molecule "A" and the other molecule "B".

Some Quick Facts Regarding Blood Types/Groups

Find out other interesting blood facts in our list of fascinating and amazing human body facts.

Blood Types (Groups)

A blood type (also called a blood group) is defined as the classification of blood based on the presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs). A series of related blood types constitutes a blood group system, such as the Rh or ABO system. The frequencies of the ABO and Rh blood types vary from population to population.

There are eight different common blood types, which are determined by the presence or absence of certain antigens, which are substances that can trigger an immune response if they are foreign to the human body. Since some antigens can trigger a patient's immune system to attack the transfused blood, safe blood transfusions depend on careful blood typing and cross-matching. There are 4 major blood groups determined by the presence or absence of two antigens (A and B) on the surface of red blood cells:

Common Blood Types
Blood GroupAntigen
AHas only A antigen on red cells (and B antibody in the plasma)
BHas only B antigen on red cells (and A antibody in the plasma)
ABHas both A and B antigens on red cells (but neither A nor B antibody in the plasma)
OHas neither A nor B antigens on red cells (but both A and B antibody are in the plasma)

In addition to the A and B antigens, there is a third antigen called the Rh factor, which can be either present (+) or absent ( - ). In general, Rh negative blood is given to Rh-negative patients, and Rh positive blood or Rh negative blood may be given to Rh positive patients.

Donating Blood by Compatible Type:

Blood types are very important when a blood transfusion is necessary. In a blood transfusion, a patient must receive a blood type compatible with his or her own blood type. If the blood types are not compatible, red blood cells will clump together, making clots that can block blood vessels and cause death.

If two different blood types are mixed together, the blood cells may begin to clump together in the blood vessels, causing a potentially fatal situation. Therefore, it is important that blood types be matched before blood transfusions take place. In an emergency, type O blood can be given because it is most likely to be accepted by all blood types. However, there is still a risk involved.

Compatible Blood Type Donors
Blood TypeDonate Blood ToReceive Blood From
A+A+ AB+A+ A- O+ O-
O+O+ A+ B+ AB+O+ O-
B+B+ AB+B+ B- O+ O-
AB+AB+Everyone
A-A+ A- AB+ AB-A- O-
O-EveryoneO-
B-B+ B- AB+ AB-B- O-
AB-AB+ AB-AB- A- B- O-

Paternity Blood Matches

Paternity can be determined by highly accurate tests conducted on blood or tissue samples of the father - or alleged father, mother and child.

Before DNA analysis was available, blood types were the most common factor considered in human paternity testing.

In cases of questioned paternity, ABO blood-typing can be used to exclude a man from being a child's father. An example being, a man who has type AB blood could not father a child with type O blood, because he would pass on either the A or the B allele to all of his offspring. The word "allele", an abbreviated term for "allelomorph" meaning "other form", which was used in the early days of genetics to describe variant forms of a gene detected as different phenotypes.

Paternity testing can be especially important when the rights and duties of the father are in issue and a child's paternity is in doubt. Tests can also determine the likelihood of someone being a biological grandparent.

How accurate are Paternity blood type or DNA tests? According to FindLaw.com (https://family.findlaw.com/paternity/paternity-tests-blood-tests-and-dna.html) these tests have an accuracy range of between 90 to 99%.

Below is a chart showing possible blood type of a child according to their parents blood group(s).

Printable chart showing possible blood type of a child according to their parents blood group.
Printable chart showing possible blood type of a child according to their parents blood group.

Printable Blood Type Chart

Printable chart showing the above table of compatible blood types for receiving blood transfusions.

Printable chart showing compatible blood types for receiving blood transfusions.
Printable chart showing compatible blood types for receiving blood transfusions.

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