Skip to main content

Disability or Disabled - Which Term is Right?

  • Published: 2011-09-01 (Revised/Updated 2017-06-30) : Author: Disabled World : Contact: Disabled World
  • Synopsis: Differences and similarities in disability and disabled terminology including the right term to use.

Quote: "Some people who are autistic, blind, deaf, and a few other disabilities embrace their disability as a minority identity."

Main Document

Disability and Disabled are both words that generally describe functional limitations that affect one or more of the major life activities, including walking, lifting, learning, breathing, etc. Different laws define disability differently. "Disability" and "Disabled" are terms that are undergoing change due to the disability rights movement both in the U.S. and U.K. To a lesser extent this is occurring worldwide.

A disability is defined as a condition or function judged to be significantly impaired relative to the usual standard of an individual or group. The term is used to refer to individual functioning, including physical impairment, sensory impairment, cognitive impairment, intellectual impairment mental illness, and various types of chronic disease.

Conventional definitions of "disabled" and "disability" stem from social service programs and benefits programs such as Social Security. These definitions, dating back many years (See Deborah Stone's book "The Disabled State ") uniformly used the term "disabled" or "disability" to mean "unable" - to work, to handle gainful employment, etc. If you look up definitions of "disabled" you'll find these kinds of definitions.

To most people today the term "disabled" still means that, and, more broadly, means "unable to perform" this or that physical or mental function.

Even more broadly, a large group of physical or mental conditions are considered to be "disabilities" - things people have also called "afflictions" or "impairments" or "injuries" or "diseases."

Beginning in the 1970s, people labeled as "disabled" (Either because they fell under the Social Security definition or because they had some sort of injury or condition considered a "disability") began seeking changes in society that would allow them to have a better life. Since the 1980s, this effort has generally been termed "disability rights" advocacy or "disability rights activism." The term is "disability rights" - not "disabled rights" or "handicapped rights" simply because historically and politically that's the term that the activists themselves have come to call it. So the correct term is "Disability Rights."


Calling a person disabled - not THE disabled but a disabled person is almost always considered correct. This is the primary term used in the UK and amongst academics and activists in the United States.

Another term that grew in popularity during the first part of the 20th Century was "handicapped." The conventional wisdom has it that this was a term first used by the social service field; it's intent was to focus on social conditions: to say that an individual was "handicapped" by such and such - by paralysis, by being kept out of buildings, whatever. (It is not true, as some have said, that the term comes from "cap in hand." See for a discussion of this) The term comes from sports: handicapping mean assigned some extra burden or weight.

Back to the birth of today's disability rights movement: budding activists did not like having been "defined" by the social service system basically rebelled against the term "handicapped" SIMPLY BECAUSE IT HAD BEEN ASSIGNED TO THEM BY OTHERS - and, in choosing a new term, chose "disabled." Anecdote has it that Judy Heumann led the change, arguing that "others handicap us but we are disabled people" - this is not in any way an exact quote but it carries the flavor of Heumann's thinking.

So, activists in the U.S began using "disabled." As in "disabled person."


Then a movement came along to change the wording to "people first language" - so, it was argued, use the term "people with disabilities." Britain's disability rights theorists and disability studies leaders reject that, and stick with "disabled person." Currently in the U.S.A. activists seem divided. We must keep in mind that the disability rights movement and its thinking is almost unknown outside the movement itself! - People First Language: An Oppositional Viewpoint.

Many people still use "handicapped" or "crippled" or "afflicted."

None of these terms is looked upon with favor by anyone in the organized U.S. or U.K. disability rights movement. "Handicapped" is truly detested in U.K. circles. Handicapped is offensive - it's a limiting term. Challenged is just sugar coating, as is impaired or any other word that attempts to "dance around" the subject matter. The idea of being challenged emerged about 10 years ago and is condescending. People with disabilities are not challenged - you are challenged to play chess and one of you wins - disabilities you live with - you struggle - you face them head on - there is only learning to accept and move onward.


A physically disabled person is physically disabled. In this context, it is appropriate to use mobility impaired to signify the person's limitations.

Some people who are autistic, blind, deaf, and a few other disabilities embrace their disability as a minority identity.

A person with autism is either neurodiverse, autistic, or an "autie" within the autism community.

A person with Asperger's is either neurodiverse, autistic, or an "aspie" within the autism/Asperger's community.

They are not dismissing the fact that they are disabled - but they are dismissing it as a negative experience. I am autistic. I am an aspie. I am deaf. I am blind. I am disabled.

There are some words, three especially, that have been rejected nearly universally - retardation and any derivative like retard, tard, retarded; spastic and spaz; Cripple and crip. Just like the N word is used between peers - spaz and crip are used between close friends. Retard is not used by anyone to describe themselves.


• Have your say! Add your comment or discuss this article on our FaceBook Page.

Similar Topics

1 : Definitions of Human Brain Components : Disabled World.
2 : Common Vocabulary Terms That May Seem The Same But Are Different : Frontiers.
3 : Definitions and Glossary of Adaptive and Assistive Technology Terms : Disabled World.
4 : Disability Pride: Definitions and Awareness Information : Disabled World.
5 : List of Health, Medical and Disability Lists : Disabled World.
From our Definitions section - Full List (38 Items)

Submit disability news, coming events, as well as assistive technology product news and reviews.

Loan Information for low income singles, families, seniors and disabled. Includes home, vehicle and personal loans.

Famous People with Disabilities - Well known people with disabilities and conditions who contributed to society.

List of awareness ribbon colors and their meaning. Also see our calendar of awareness dates.

Blood Pressure Chart - What should your blood pressure be, and information on blood group types/compatibility.

1 : Help Your Child in School by Adding Language to The Math
2 : 50% of Retirees Saw Little or No COLA Increase in Net 2018 Social Security Benefits
3 : Turnstone Endeavor Games Concludes with National Records Broken
4 : Spinning in Circles and Learning From Myself by Tsara Shelton
5 : St. Louis HELP Medical Equipment Donation Drive Generates Record-Breaking Results
6 : People Who Snore Suffer from Palate Nerve and Muscle Damage
7 : How Our Ancestors with Autistic Traits Led a Revolution in Ice Age Art
8 : Housing and Disabled People: Britains Hidden Crisis

Disclaimer: This site does not employ and is not overseen by medical professionals. Content on Disabled World is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of a physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. See our Terms of Service for more information.

Reporting Errors: Disabled World is an independent website, your assistance in reporting outdated or inaccurate information is appreciated. If you find an error please let us know.

© 2004 - 2018 Disabled World™