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List of Mental Diseases and Disorders

Mental Disorders May Also be Referred to as Mental Health Conditions

Published: 2023/03/28 - Updated: 2023/04/02
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Synopsis: This list contains conditions and explanations of currently recognized mental disorders as defined by the DSM and ICD. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) 1 in every 8 people (970 million people) in the world live with a mental disorder. Of concern to some is whether certain mental disorders should be classified as "mental illnesses" or whether they would be better described as neurological disorders.



Mental Disorder

A mental disorder, also referred to as a mental illness, psychiatric disorder, or mental health condition, is a behavioral or cognitive pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning. According to DSM-IV, a mental disorder is a psychological syndrome or pattern that is associated with distress (e.g., via a painful symptom), disability (impairment in one or more critical areas of functioning), increased risk of death, or causes a significant loss of autonomy; however, it excludes normal responses such as grief from the loss of a loved one and also excludes deviant behavior for political, religious, or societal reasons not arising from a dysfunction in the individual.

Main Digest

Mental disorders may also be referred to as mental health conditions. Mental disorders involve significant disturbances in thinking, emotional regulation, or behavior. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) 1 in every 8 people (970 million people) in the world live with a mental disorder.

The following is a list of mental disorders as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). The diagnostic criteria and information in the DSM and ICD are revised and updated with each new version. This list contains conditions currently recognized as mental disorders as defined by the two systems.

NOTE: There is disagreement in various fields of mental health care, including the field of psychiatry, over the definitions and criteria used to delineate mental disorders. Of concern to some professionals is whether certain mental disorders should be classified as "mental illnesses" or whether they would be better described as neurological disorders - or in other ways.

Mental Health Conditions and Disorders List

Anxiety Disorders

Anxiety disorders involve more than temporary worry or fear. For people with an anxiety disorder, the anxiety does not go away and can get worse over time. Anxiety disorder symptoms can interfere with daily activities such as job performance, schoolwork, and relationships. Often, anxiety disorders involve repeated episodes of sudden feelings of intense anxiety and fear or terror that reach a peak within minutes (panic attacks). Fortunately, there are several effective treatments for anxiety disorders. Examples of anxiety disorders include:

Dissociative Disorders

Dissociative disorders are mental disorders that involve experiencing a disconnection and lack of continuity between thoughts, memories, surroundings, actions and identity. Dissociative disorders usually develop as a reaction to trauma and help keep difficult memories at bay. People with dissociative disorders use dissociation as a defense mechanism, pathologically and involuntarily. Examples of dissociative disorders include:

Mood Disorders

A mood disorder, also known as an affective disorder, is a group of conditions of mental and behavioral disorder where a disturbance in the person's mood is the main underlying feature. The term broadly describes all types of depression and bipolar disorders. Therapy, medicines, support and self-care can help treat mood disorders. Examples of mood disorders include:

Depressive Disorders

Depressive disorders are characterized by sadness severe enough or persistent enough to interfere with function and often by decreased interest or pleasure in activities. Major depressive disorder (MDD), or clinical depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of pervasive low mood, low self-esteem, and loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities. Treatments usually consist of drugs, psychotherapy, or both, and sometimes electroconvulsive therapy or rapid transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Examples of depressive disorders include:

Bipolar Disorders

Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is characterized by extreme mood swings. These can range from extreme highs (mania) to extreme lows (depression). Episodes of mania and depression often last for several days or longer. If the elevated mood is severe or associated with psychosis, it is called mania; if it is less severe, it is called hypomania. Bipolar disorder is the sixth leading cause of disability worldwide and has a lifetime prevalence of about 1 to 3% in the general population. Examples of bipolar disorder types include:

Trauma and Stressor Related Disorders

Trauma and stressor-related disorders are a group of emotional and behavioral problems that may result from childhood traumatic and stressful experiences. These traumatic and stressful experiences can include exposure to physical or emotional violence or pain, including abuse, neglect, or family conflict. Previously, trauma- and stressor-related disorders were considered anxiety disorders. However, they are now considered distinct because many patients do not have anxiety but instead have symptoms of anhedonia or dysphoria, anger, aggression, or dissociation. Examples of trauma and stressor-related disorders types include:

Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Neurodevelopmental disorders are a group of mental disorders that affect the development of the nervous system, leading to abnormal brain function which may affect emotion, learning ability, self-control, and memory. NDs usually onset during stages of development which makes them most present in toddlers, children, and adolescents, but continue to persist into adulthood, or may go undiagnosed until adulthood. Examples of neurodevelopmental disorders types include:

Sleep-wake Disorders

Sleep-wake disorders occur when the body's internal clock does not work properly or is out of sync with the surrounding environment. There are several different types of sleep-wake disorders. All involve problems falling asleep or staying awake at desired or socially appropriate times. Diagnosis of sleep-wake disorders is based on the type of sleep problems present and the timing and setting in which they occur. The specific treatment of sleep-wake disorders depends on the type of sleep-wake disorder. Examples of sleep-wake disorders include:


Parasomnia is a catchall term for unusual behaviors that people experience prior to falling asleep, while asleep, or during the arousal period between sleep and wakefulness. Parasomnias are disruptive sleep-related disorders. Parasomnias may be categorized as primary parasomnias (disorders of sleep states) or secondary parasomnias (disorders of other organ systems that may manifest during sleep, including seizures, respiratory dyskinesia and gastroesophageal reflux). Examples of parasomnia disorders include:

Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder

Circadian rhythm disorders, also known as sleep-wake cycle disorders, are problems that occur when your body's internal clock, which tells you when it's time to sleep or wake, is out of sync with your environment. Your internal clock, called a circadian clock, cycles about every 24 hours. Treatment options include bright light therapy, medications and behavioral therapy. Treatment choice depends on disorder type and how much it affects your quality of life. Examples of circadian rhythm sleep disorders include:

Neurocognitive Disorders

Neurocognitive disorders (NCDs), or cognitive disorders (CDs), are a category of mental health disorders that primarily affect cognitive abilities including learning, memory, perception, and problem solving. Neurocognitive disorders include delirium, mild neurocognitive disorders, and major neurocognitive disorder (previously called dementia). The decline must be significant in comparison with the person's prior functioning, can be reported by the person or a family member, and objectified by a clinical assessment. When cognitive decline does not affect the functional autonomy, it is considered as a mild cognitive disorder. However, when deficits have more impact on functional autonomy, a diagnosis of major cognitive disorder can be made. Examples of neurocognitive disorders include:

Substance-related and Addictive Disorders

Substance use disorder (SUD) is a treatable mental disorder that affects a person's brain and behavior, leading to their inability to control their use of substances like legal or illegal drugs, alcohol, or medications. Symptoms can be moderate to severe, with addiction being the most severe form of SUD. Substance use disorder in DSM-5 combines the DSM-IV categories of substance abuse and substance dependence into a single disorder measured from mild to severe. Examples of substance-related and addictive disorders include:

Substance related disorders

Disorders due to use of alcohol

Disorders due to use of cannabis

Disorders due to use of synthetic cannabinoids

Disorders due to use of opioids

Disorders due to use of sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic

Disorders due to use of Cocaine

Disorders due to use of Amphetamines

Disorders due to use of synthetic cathinone

Disorders due to use of caffeine

Disorders due to use of hallucinogens

Disorders due to use of nicotine

Disorders due to use of volatile inhalants

Disorders due to use of dissociative drugs including ketamine and phencyclidine (PCP)

Non-substance related disorder


Paraphilias (previously known as sexual perversion and sexual deviation) are persistent and recurrent sexual interests, urges, fantasies, or behaviors of marked intensity involving objects, activities, or even situations that are atypical in nature. There is no scientific consensus for any precise border between unusual sexual interests and paraphilic ones. There is an ongoing debate over which, if any, of the paraphilias should be listed in diagnostic manuals, such as the DSM or the ICD. Examples of paraphilias include:

Somatic Symptom Related Disorders

Somatic symptom and related disorders (SSDs) is the name for a group of conditions in which the physical pain and symptoms a person feels are related to psychological factors. SSDs are a group of diseases in which youth have physical symptoms that are either very distressing or result in significant disruption of their daily functioning, as well as excessive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding those symptoms. Somatic symptom and related disorders are common in both children and adolescents, occur across cultures, and can begin as early as the preschool years. Examples of somatic symptom related disorders include:

Sexual Dysfunctions

Sexual dysfunction is a common problem among both men and women. It can be caused by physical problems and medical conditions, such as heart disease and hormone imbalances, or by psychological problems, like anxiety, depression and the effects of past trauma. Sexual dysfunction can be classified into four categories: sexual desire disorders, arousal disorders, orgasm disorders, and pain disorders. Examples of sexual dysfunction include:

Elimination Disorders

Elimination disorders are present in children that urinate or defecate in places other than the toilet. Encopresis is the repeated passing of feces into places other than the toilet, such as underwear or on the floor. This behavior may or may not be done on purpose. Enuresis is the repeated passing of urine in places other than the toilet. Children with these disorders are usually past the age where such acts are common behavior. This condition is diagnosed in children between the ages of 7 and 12. Examples of elimination disorders include:

Feeding and Eating Disorders

Feeding and eating disorders are characterized by eating behavior that results in health or psychosocial problems. The causes of eating disorders are unclear, although biological and environmental factors appear to play a role. Cultural idealization of thinness is believed to contribute to some eating disorders. Examples of feeding and eating disorders include:

Disruptive Impulse-control and Conduct Disorders

Disruptive, impulse control and conduct disorders are a group of disorders that are linked by varying difficulties in controlling aggressive behaviors, self-control, and impulses. Disruptive, impulse-control, and conduct disorders can be defined as conditions involving problems in the self-control of emotions and behaviors which result in the violation of another one's rights and/or cause significant conflict with societal norms or authority figures. DSM-5 has a new chapter on disruptive, impulse-control, and conduct disorders. Examples of disruptive, impulse control and conduct disorders include:

Obsessive-compulsive and Related disorders

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) features a pattern of unwanted thoughts and fears (obsessions) that lead to repetitive behaviors (compulsions). Some people have both obsessions and compulsions. These obsessions and compulsions interfere with daily activities and cause significant distress. OCD often centers around certain themes - for example, an excessive fear of getting contaminated by germs. Examples of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders include:

Schizophrenia Spectrum and Psychotic Disorders

The DSM-5 states that schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders are "defined by abnormalities in one or more of the following five domains: delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thinking (speech), grossly disorganized or abnormal motor behavior (including catatonia), and negative symptoms." Individuals with schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders experience a range of often debilitating symptoms that may include hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thinking, speech, and/or disorganized or unusual behavior. Sadly, these disorders often manifest right at the time of the transition from adolescence to adulthood, just as young people should be evolving into independent young adults. Examples of schizophrenia spectrum and psychotic disorders include:

Personality Disorders

Personality disorders (PD) are a class of mental disorders characterized by enduring maladaptive patterns of behavior, cognition, and inner experience, exhibited across many contexts and deviating from those accepted by the individual's culture. People with a personality disorder display more rigid thinking and reacting behaviors that make it hard for them to adapt to a situation. These behaviors often disrupt their personal, professional, and social lives. People with personality disorders often don't realize their thoughts and behaviors are problematic. Examples of personality disorders include:

Cluster A

Cluster B

Cluster C


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