A clubfoot, or talipes equinovarus (TEV), is a birth defect. The foot is twisted in (inverted) and down. Without treatment , persons afflicted often appear to walk on their ankles, or on the sides of their feet. It is a common birth defect, occurring in about one in every 1,000 live births.
Approximately 50% of cases of clubfoot are bilateral. In most cases it is an isolated dysmelia. Incidence in males is higher than in females.
There are different causes for clubfoot: Mainly caused by Edwards' syndrome, a genetic defect with three copies of chromosome 18 genetic causes with incidence rates increasing significantly when multiple direct family members have the condition external influences such as intrauterine compression from oligohydramnios or from amniotic band syndrome.
Clubfoot is treated with manipulation largely by a podiatrist, sometimes an orthopedic surgeons, specialist nurses, or orthotists, will treat the condition by providing FAB braces to hold the feet in orthodox positions, serial casting, or small splints called knee ankle foot orthoses(KAFO).
After correction has been achieved, maintenance of correction may require the full-time (23 hours per day) use of a splint-also known as a foot abduction brace (FAB)-on both feet, regardless or whether the TEV is on one side or both, for several weeks after treatment. Part-time use of a brace (generally at night, usually 12 hours per day) is frequently prescribed for up to 4 years.
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