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Closing the Gap: Achieving Equitable Education for Persons with Disabilities in Pakistan

Proposed Solutions to Bridge the Gap in Equitable Education

Published: 2023-06-25 - Updated: 2023-08-06
Author: Usman Afzal - Contact: Contact Details
Peer-Reviewed: N/A - Publication Type: Observational Study
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Synopsis: Usman Afzal paper submission regarding closing the gap between persons with and without disabilities in education in Pakistan. Despite the existence of various national and international policies addressing the importance of education for persons with disabilities, Pakistan still faces challenges in effectively implementing these policies. These challenges range from accessing inclusive education materials and finding suitable institutes to facing societal discrimination and struggling to secure employment.

Main Digest

"Closing the Gap: Achieving Equitable Education for Persons with Disabilities in Pakistan", explores some of the problems that I have seen at the grass root level as a student and a teacher with visual impairment, such as lack of accessibility, awareness, resources and opportunities. It also suggests some possible solutions and recommendations to improve the situation and promote inclusive education for all.



Education is a fundamental entitlement for every individual, irrespective of gender, ethnicity, social class, financial status, religion, race, or any other societal construct. This fundamental right extends to persons with disabilities as well. In our contemporary world, where technology reigns supreme, individuals with disabilities are increasingly showcasing their talents and skills, often serving as a source of inspiration by sharing their personal narratives. However, it is essential to grasp the concept of "persons with disabilities" and understand what it truly means to be such an individual. According to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), individuals falling under the category of "persons with disabilities" encompass those who endure long-term physical, mental, intellectual, or sensory impairments that, when combined with various obstacles, hinder their full and effective engagement in society on an equal footing with others. Given the inherent disparity in their ability to participate fully in society, it becomes imperative for individuals with disabilities to acquire education that empowers them to make meaningful contributions to society.

The Role of National and International Policies in Promoting Inclusive Education

Despite the existence of various national and international policies addressing the importance of education for persons with disabilities, Pakistan still faces challenges in effectively implementing these policies. The Policy for Students with Disabilities at Higher Education Institutions in Pakistan, formulated by the Higher Education Commission (HEC), provides guidelines and standards to create an enabling environment for students with disabilities. It emphasizes aspects such as admission and registration procedures, academic and financial support, accessibility, awareness, and monitoring. However, the implementation of these guidelines needs improvement to ensure their effectiveness and inclusivity.

The National Policy for Persons with Disabilities 2002, established by the Government of Pakistan, outlines objectives and principles for promoting the rights and welfare of persons with disabilities. It aims to ensure equal opportunities, non-discrimination, participation, empowerment, social integration, and respect for diversity and dignity. The policy identifies areas of intervention and strategies, including special education, inclusive education, vocational training, scholarships, teacher training, curriculum development, research, and collaboration among stakeholders. However, there is a need for stronger implementation mechanisms to achieve the intended goals of the policy.

The National Plan of Action for Persons with Disabilities 2006 complements the national policy by specifying activities and targets for its implementation. It focuses on establishing special education centers, schools, and colleges, providing scholarships and stipends, training teachers and staff, developing inclusive curricula and teaching materials, conducting research, and establishing a national council for rehabilitation. However, there is a need for sustained efforts to ensure effective execution of these activities and the achievement of targeted outcomes.

In addition to these national policies, the Sustainable Development Goal 4 emphasizes the importance of inclusive and equitable quality education for all individuals. This goal aligns with the principles outlined in the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), specifically Article 24. The CRPD recognizes the right of persons with disabilities to education and calls for the establishment of an inclusive education system at all levels. It emphasizes the development of human potential, respect for human rights and diversity, and the effective participation of persons with disabilities in society.

Specific Challenges Faced by Persons with Disabilities in Pakistan

Despite the policies mentioned above, Pakistan still faces numerous challenges in providing equal opportunities for persons with disabilities. These challenges range from accessing inclusive education materials and finding suitable institutes to facing societal discrimination and struggling to secure employment. The scope of these challenges is vast, affecting persons with disabilities at every level throughout the country. While major cities like Islamabad, Lahore, and Karachi may offer slightly better opportunities in education and employment, most other areas lack adequate support.

For example, in smaller cities, individuals often have to leave their hometowns to pursue secondary education, as the available schools for persons with visual impairments only provide education up to the middle standard. Additionally, many students in these areas drop out after completing the 8th standard due to a lack of awareness about available facilities or their limited resources. This issue is exacerbated for visually impaired students who face a lack of confidence instilled in them by societal beliefs that they are incapable and limited by their disability. Female students, in particular, face more challenges as their parents are often reluctant to take risks and send them to mainstream educational institutes or other cities for education.

These challenges arise from a lack of awareness among parents, a lack of confidence among students, and the treatment of persons with disabilities as fragile and isolated individuals. Parents often fail to understand their own children, stifling their curiosity, eagerness to learn, and participation in society. Even if these students manage to complete secondary and higher secondary education privately, they struggle to cope with the pressure and environment of mainstream institutes at the university level. Professors and educational institutions often lack the understanding and resources to accommodate students with disabilities, leading to a lack of specialized centers and accessible study materials in colleges and universities.

Another significant challenge faced by wheelchair users is the absence of ramps and accessible infrastructure in buildings, forcing them to rely on assistance from others, which can be degrading and diminish their confidence and self-esteem.

Proposed Solutions to Bridge the Gap in Equitable Education

To address these challenges, several solutions can be implemented:

1. Awareness campaigns: It is crucial to raise awareness among society, including parents, about the potential and capabilities of persons with disabilities. This can be achieved through campaigns, banners, and utilizing social media. Special emphasis should be placed on reaching illiterate individuals in rural areas. This awareness should focus on dispelling misconceptions and stereotypes and highlighting the abilities and potential of persons with disabilities.

2. Training for educators: Teachers, lecturers, and professors should receive specialized training to cater to the needs of persons with disabilities. This training should equip them with the knowledge and skills to create inclusive learning environments and effectively support students with disabilities.

3. Building confidence: Primary-level students with disabilities should be encouraged and empowered to participate fully in mainstream society. Their achievements and abilities should be acknowledged and celebrated, and parents should be counseled to avoid underestimating their children's capabilities. Building confidence early on will help these students overcome barriers and thrive in mainstream educational institutions.

4. Specialized centers: Colleges and universities should establish specialized centers to cater to the needs of persons with disabilities. These centers can provide accessible study materials, assistive technologies, and other necessary accommodations to facilitate inclusive education. Additionally, they can offer counseling and support services tailored to the unique challenges faced by individuals with disabilities.

5. Gender-focused initiatives: Specific attention should be given to female students with disabilities, as they face additional barriers in completing their education and finding suitable employment. Programs and initiatives should be designed to address these unique challenges and promote gender equality in education and employment opportunities.

6. Collaboration between government and private sectors: To bridge the gap between policy intentions and on-ground realities, government entities and private institutes should collaborate. By working together, they can develop inclusive opportunities and support systems for persons with disabilities in both education and employment sectors.

Conclusion: Moving towards Inclusive and Empowering Education for Persons with Disabilities in Pakistan

In conclusion, Pakistan has made commendable efforts in formulating policies and demonstrating commitments to advance inclusive and high-quality education for individuals with disabilities. However, the country faces formidable challenges that necessitate immediate attention and resolution. These challenges encompass restricted access to inclusive educational resources and institutions, pervasive societal discrimination, and the difficulties associated with securing suitable employment opportunities. It is imperative to undertake comprehensive awareness campaigns targeting parents and society as a whole, alongside the provision of specialized training for educators and the establishment of dedicated centers. Such measures are instrumental in fostering an environment conducive to the holistic development of individuals with disabilities. Furthermore, emphasis should be placed on instilling confidence, particularly among primary-level students, and implementing gender-specific initiatives to dismantle barriers and ensure equitable prospects. Collaboration between the government and private sectors assumes paramount significance to ensure the effective implementation of policies and the creation of inclusive opportunities. By effectively addressing these challenges and implementing the proposed solutions, Pakistan can strive towards cultivating a more inclusive and empowering education system for individuals with disabilities. This transformation will enable them to actively participate in society and contribute meaningfully to its overall progress.


I am Usman Afzal and I'm a teacher with visual impairment. I work at a local Special Education Center for "Visually Impaired Children", where I help my students achieve their full potential and overcome their challenges. In addition, I serve as a member at Pakistan Blind Sports Federation, an organization that develops and promotes sports among the persons with visual impairment. As a translator-transcriber from Urdu to English, I communicate ideas clearly with stakeholders, sponsors and the parties involved in the organization's activities.


United Nations. (2015). Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Retrieved from

United Nations. (2006). Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Retrieved from

Lack of Sports Facilities for Visually Impaired Persons in Pakistan: A Call for Inclusivity and Support

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Cite This Page (APA): Usman Afzal. (2023, June 25). Closing the Gap: Achieving Equitable Education for Persons with Disabilities in Pakistan. Disabled World. Retrieved September 23, 2023 from

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