A stationary electric charge that is built up on a material. A common example of static electricity is the electrical shock that we can get when we touch a metallic article. Static electricity is formed when we accumulate extra electrons (negatively-charged particles) and they are discharged to an object or person.
"Static charge build-up is enhanced when the surrounding air is dry, especially when the weather is both cold and dry."
Information on how to stop getting shocked from electrostatic discharges in the home, car, and from synthetic clothing.
A shock from static electricity (technically known as electrostatic discharge, or ESD) is not a true electric shock but rather the pain from a hot spark jumping to or from your finger or other parts of your body.
Static electricity is generated whenever two materials are in contact with each other. For example, shuffling your feet across a carpet is a surefire way to generate a painful shock. If the materials are able to conduct electricity away then the static charges will dissipate, however, if the charges are separated faster than the material can dissipate them, the amount of electrostatic charge builds up.
Some people are more sensitive to these shocks than others. Shocks are usually only felt if your body is charged to over about 4000 Volts, and you touch something conductive (like metal objects, water, or other people).
Static charge build-up is enhanced when the surrounding air is dry, especially when the weather is both cold and dry. When the humidity level is low, static charge will build up no matter how hard you try to avoid it. Static electricity accumulates because an insulator prevents the accumulated electrons from flowing. That insulator can be your hard soled shoes or excessively dry hands.
As mentioned above, static electricity is generated when objects of dissimilar substances move relative to each other. If one of the objects is non-conductive, such as the rubber wheels on your wheelchair, an electric charge can accumulate and produce sparks. To prevent the generation of the static charges or to drain off charges generated on an object, a conductive path must be insured. While, (to our knowledge), there are no grounding devices designed specifically for wheelchairs, it should not be a major problem to use a conductive device to achieve grounding. It is imperative, however, that all elements of the wheelchair system be grounded.
You might try using a key or metal rod to touch something else that is metal before you touch it with your hand, or before you touch someone else. Touching the rod to a metal object (not your wheelchair) should drain off the excess charges, allowing you to avoid a shock. It may be inconvenient, but it is one solution. Another solution is to use a small chain fastened to the wheelchair or powerchair frame allowing the other end to brush the ground or floor. For wheelchair users who are constantly getting "zapped" apparelyzed.com has an informative article regarding Wheelchairs, Static Electricity and Electric Shocks.
By taking the proper steps, you can reduce or prevent shocks from a buildup of static electric charges. There is little risk attached to electrostatic discharges, and in most cases they are just a nuisance, the biggest risk is that a sudden unexpected shock could cause you to have an accidental injury. For example, you might pull your arm back suddenly and hit it against something - or someone.