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The Most Common Learning Disabilities Today

  • Date: 2019/02/27
  • Disabled World - www.disabled-world.com
  • Synopsis : List of common learning disabilities including an explanation of each, and signs or symptoms a child with an LD may display.

Main Document

Learning disabilities are broadly defined as neurologically-based processing problems that can interfere with learning basic skills such as reading, writing and/or math.

A learning disability is not an intellectual disability, a learning disability is a disability that affects a person's ability to process information. People with learning disabilities possess an average to above average IQ - (ldapei.ca/types-of-learning-disabilities.html). It's important to note that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are not the same as learning disabilities - (webmd.com/children/guide/detecting-learning-disabilities).

Because of the wide variations it's not always easy to identify learning disabilities, as there is often no single symptom or profile that you can look to as proof of a problem. However, some warning signs are more common than others at different ages. Common signs that a person may have learning disabilities can include:

  • Clumsiness
  • Poor memory
  • Trouble telling time
  • Problems with math
  • Problems paying attention
  • Trouble following directions
  • Problems staying organized
  • Problems reading and/or writing

NOTE: These signs alone are not enough to determine that a person has a learning disability. Only a professional can diagnose a learning disability.

Dyslexia - Reading Disability

Approximately 5 to 17% of the US population have dyslexia. The main signs or symptoms of dyslexia are:

  • Poor spelling
  • Below average spelling
  • General vocabulary skills
  • Letter and word recognition
  • Reading speed and fluency
  • Delay in being able to speak
  • Trouble telling left from right
  • Problems learning the alphabet
  • Understanding words and ideas
  • Giving up on longer reading tasks
  • Trouble learning foreign languages
  • Difficulty learning songs and rhymes
  • Difficulty expressing thoughts or feelings
  • Confusing short words such as: and, the, but
  • Slow rate of reading, both silently and out loud
  • Reversing letter shapes and the letters in words
  • Difficulty organizing written and spoken language
  • Difficulties rhyming words and learning new words
  • Problems making the links between letters and sounds
  • Problems following directions that involve multiple steps
  • Having a hard time understanding what others are saying
  • Difficulty understanding questions and following directions
  • Difficulty learning new words (vocabulary), either while reading or hearing
  • Problems remembering numbers in sequence (Phone numbers, Addresses etc.)

Dyscalculia: Disability in Math

Children with Dyscalculia often have problems learning mathematical concepts, and memorizing mathematical facts and/or understanding structure of mathematical problems on the page such as:

  • Numerical organization
  • Quantity, place value and time
  • Trouble describing math processes
  • Difficulty with math-related word problems
  • Trouble making change in cash transactions
  • Messiness in putting math problems on paper
  • Trouble understanding the time sequence of events
  • Trouble with logical sequences (E.g. steps in math problems)

Dysgraphia: Writing Disability

Difficulties in handwriting that can cause loss of academic achievement through inability to construct compositions or extended written texts and can include:

  • Illegible writing
  • Spelling problems
  • Problems with grammar
  • Trouble writing down ideas
  • Saying words out loud while writing
  • Writing organization and coherence
  • Neatness and consistency of writing
  • Accurately copying letters and words
  • Strong dislike of writing and/or drawing
  • Difficulties or awkwardness holding a pencil
  • Lack of control of spacing and sizing of letters
  • Trouble writing down thoughts in a logical sequence
  • Losing energy or interest as soon as they start writing
  • Leaving words unfinished or omitting them when writing sentences
  • Grammatical and punctuation errors within sentences and poor paragraph organization

Dyspraxia: Motor Skills Disability

Dyspraxia is a nonverbal learning disability, for example:

  • Motor clumsiness
  • Lack of organizational skills
  • Problems with social relationships
  • Disorders of speaking and listening
  • Poor skills governing visual-spatial relationships

Dysphasia (Aphasia): Language Learning Disability

Signs of a language based disability may include:

  • Fluency of speech
  • Problems with verbal language
  • Inability to retell a story or narrate a first-hand anecdote
  • Difficulties understanding the meanings of words and directions

Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA) - Facts and Information

Auditory Processing Disorders

Auditory processing disorder (APD), also known as central auditory processing disorder (CAPD), is a hearing problem that affects about 5% of school-aged children. Auditory processing disorders may cause a person to struggle with distinguishing similar sounds, as well as other difficulties.

Children with auditory processing disorder are thought to hear normally because they can usually hear sounds that are delivered one at a time in a very quiet environment. However, they may not distinguish slight differences between sounds in words, even when the sounds are loud and clear enough to be heard. Symptoms of APD can include:

  • Child may be disorganized and forgetful
  • Conversations may be hard for the child to follow
  • Noisy environments may be upsetting to the child
  • Verbal math problems may be difficult for the child
  • Child's behavior and performance improves in quieter settings
  • Easily distracted or unusually bothered by loud or sudden noises
  • Child may have difficulty following simple or complicated directions
  • May have reading, spelling, writing, or other speech-language difficulties

Visual Processing Disorders

These are disorders that can result in missing subtle differences in shapes or printed letters, losing place frequently, struggles with cutting, holding pencil too tightly, or poor eye/hand coordination. Visual Processing Disorders can cause people to struggle with seeing differences between similar letters, number, objects, colors, shapes and patterns.

It is important to note that many children may have trouble reading, writing, or performing learning-related tasks however, this does not mean they may have learning disabilities.

References:

Types of Learning Disabilities
https://ldaamerica.org/types-of-learning-disabilities/

Auditory Processing Disorder
https://kidshealth.org/en/parents/central-auditory.html

What are some signs of learning disabilities?
https://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/learning/conditioninfo/signs

Learning Disabilities and Disorders: Types of Learning Disorders and Their Signs:
https://www.helpguide.org/articles/autism-learning-disabilities/learning-disabilities-and-disorders.htm/

The Five Most Common Learning Disabilities Seen in Schools Today:
https://mastersed.uc.edu/news-resources/the-five-most-common-learning-disabilities-seen-in-schools-today/

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