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Examining Feelings of Inclusion Among Students with Disabilities

Published: 2017/10/27 - Updated: 2020/06/15
Author: New York University (NYU) - Contact:
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Synopsis: Study led by NYU researcher Leanna Stiefel looks at steps that education policymakers and practitioners can take to make inclusion in fact feel inclusive.. Students with disabilities as a whole feel only slightly less included with their peers than their general education peers do in traditional schools. The study raises the question of whether, and what, steps can be taken by policy makers and practitioners "to make inclusion in fact feel... inclusive."


Main Digest

Nationally, public schools are educating more and more students with disabilities within an inclusive, general education environment. But how do students perceive this inclusive school environment?

Noting that there is little empirical evidence concerning the efficacy of inclusive practices, a New York University professor, Leanna Stiefel, along with three colleagues, examines in a new study whether New York City middle school students feel included within their schools, with teachers, and with peers - important indicators of a student's socioemotional well-being and academic achievement. The study raises the question of whether, and what, steps can be taken by policy makers and practitioners "to make inclusion in fact feel... inclusive."

Published today in Educational Researcher, the study is entitled "Who Feels Included in School? Examining Feelings of Inclusion Among Students With Disabilities." It was led by Professor Stiefel, of NYU Wagner and NYU Steinhardt. Her co-authors included:

They seek to fill in the dearth of evidence on this question, relying on detailed, longitudinal administrative and student survey data on approximately 249,000 students in New York City middle schools.

The researchers looked in particular at how the responses to surveys differed across major disability classification of the respondent and across service delivery setting (self-contained - or exclusive - and inclusive.) Among the findings:

Professor Stiefel and her colleagues caution that they cannot say what outcomes would result if more students were educated in traditional schools instead of schools composed only of students with disabilities - or even what would result if more students with disabilities in traditional schools were assigned inclusive, or exclusive, services.

However, "Our focus on disparities in feelings of inclusion can support education practitioners in their efforts to identify areas that require attention to address the needs of all youth during this important life point" - the middle school years - they sum up.


This quality-reviewed article relating to our Disability Education section was selected for publishing by the editors of Disabled World due to its likely interest to our disability community readers. Though the content may have been edited for style, clarity, or length, the article "Examining Feelings of Inclusion Among Students with Disabilities" was originally written by New York University (NYU), and published by on 2017/10/27 (Updated: 2020/06/15). Should you require further information or clarification, New York University (NYU) can be contacted at Disabled World makes no warranties or representations in connection therewith.

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