Dyslexia, also known as alexia or developmental reading disorder, is characterized by difficulty with learning to read and with differing comprehension of language despite normal or above-average intelligence. This includes difficulty with phonological awareness, phonological decoding, processing speed, orthographic coding, auditory short-term memory, language skills and verbal comprehension, or rapid naming. Internationally, dyslexia is designated as a cognitive disorder, related to reading and speech. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke definition describes it as "difficulty with spelling, phonological processing (the manipulation of sounds), or rapid visual-verbal responding.
In 2015, the U.S. Senate voted unanimously to define dyslexia as "an unexpected difficulty in reading for an individual who has the intelligence to be a much better reader; and due to a difficulty in getting to the individual sounds of spoken language, which affects the ability of an individual to speak, read, spell, and often learn a language." This definition expands on and brings forward the definition adopted by the International Dyslexia Association (IDA) which also refers to the unexpected nature of dyslexia. According to the IDA up to 20 percent of the population may show symptoms of dyslexia.
A person suffering from dyslexia disorder experiences difficulty reading, writing, with letters, words, and numbers, as well as reversing letters and words. It is estimated that 10 to 15% of the children suffer from Dyslexia.
Children with Dyslexia are confused with letters and numbers and often learn to think in pictures and images instead.
There are three types of Dyslexia:
Causes of dyslexia are often hereditary in nature and are not caused by any emotional trauma.
Children with Dyslexia face problems at school and this negative experience at school often causes behavior problems. The child gets frustrated due to lack of achievement and hence they abstain from going to school. Dyslexic people may have some exceptional strengths. He/She may learn computers before others of similar age, and may be brighter in sports, and possess great creative abilities. Having Dyslexia doesn't mean that the person is dumb or mentally disturbed, they may be average or above average in intelligence.
Learning disabilities affect about 5 percent of all school-age children in public schools in the United States. The majority of schoolchildren who receive special education services have deficits in reading, and dyslexia is the most common cause.
Signs of Dyslexia are:
A complete psychological evaluation should be done on your child if you suspect the disorder, special education personnel can carry out the evaluation. The evaluation should include: a developmental, medical, behavioral, academic and family history, a measure of general intellectual functioning (IQ testing), testing on oral language, memory, auditory processing, visual processing, visual motor integration, phonemic awareness, phonemic decoding, word recognition, decoding, spelling, reading, reading comprehension, written expression, and handwriting (would be done by an occupational therapist).
Adults with Dyslexia may hide reading problems, spell poorly, and avoid writing. These adults often have good creative skills, though. Many adults with Dyslexia are unemployed. They have difficulty in finding a proper job due to their inability. This makes them lose their self confidence.
The following the some most common signs and symptoms of dyslexia.
1/3 of dyslexic Adults Report Being Physically Abused During Childhood
Investigators examined a representative sample of 13,054 adults aged 18 and over in the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey including 1,020 respondents who reported that they had been physically abused during their childhood and 77 who reported that they had been diagnosed by a health professional with dyslexia.
Adults who have dyslexia are much more likely to report they were physically abused before they turned 18 than their peers without dyslexia. (University of Toronto and the University of North Carolina School of Medicine in Chapel Hill )
Thirty-five per cent of adults with dyslexia report they were physically abused before they turned 18. In contrast, seven per cent of those without dyslexia reported that they had experienced childhood physical abuse.
Even after accounting for age, race, sex and other early adversities such as parental addictions, childhood physical abuse was still associated with a six-fold increase in the odds of dyslexia. (Esme Fuller-Thomson, professor and Sandra Rotman Endowed Chair at University of Toronto's Factor-Inwentash Faculty of Social Work )
It is important that primary health care providers and school-based practitioners working with children with dyslexia screen them for physical abuse. Dyslexia is a treatable learning disability - however it's important to take action as soon as possible.
Several learning disabilities often occur with dyslexia, but it is unclear whether these learning disabilities share underlying neurological causes with dyslexia. These disabilities include:
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