New Hope for Repairing Nerves After Spinal Cord Injury
Published : 2014-04-01
Author : Imperial College London
Synopsis* : New discovery suggests it could one day be possible to chemically reprogram and repair damaged nerves after spinal cord injury or brain trauma.
Main DigestResearchers from Imperial College London and the Hertie Institute, University of Tuebingen have identified a possible mechanism for re-growing damaged nerve fibers in the central nervous system (CNS). This damage is currently irreparable, often leaving those who suffer spinal cord injury, stroke or brain trauma with serious impairments like loss of sensation and permanent paralysis.
Published in Nature Communications today, the research highlights the role of a protein called P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF), which appears to be essential for the series of chemical and genetic events that allow nerves to regenerate. Regenerating nerve fibers is one of the best hopes for those suffering from CNS damage to recover.
When researchers injected PCAF into mice with damage to their central nervous system, this significantly increased the number of nerve fibers that grew back, indicating that it may be possible to chemically control the regeneration of nerves in the CNS.
"The results suggest that we may be able to target specific chemical changes to enhance the growth of nerves after injury to the central nervous system," said lead study author Professor Simone Di Giovanni, from Imperial College London's Department of Medicine. "The ultimate goal could be to develop a pharmaceutical method to trigger the nerves to grow and repair and to see some level of recovery in patients. We are excited about the potential of this work but the findings are preliminary.
"The next step is to see whether we can bring about some form of recovery of movement and function in mice after we have stimulated nerve growth through the mechanism we have identified. If this is successful, then there could be a move towards developing a drug and running clinical trials with people. We hope that our new work could one day help people to recover feeling and movement, but there are many hurdles to overcome first," he added.
The researchers were interested in understanding how axons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) make a vigorous effort to grow back when they are damaged, whereas CNS axons mount little or no effort. If damage occurs in the peripheral nervous system, which controls areas outside of the brain and spinal cord, about 30% of the nerves grow back and there is often recovery of movement and function. The researchers wanted to explore whether it was possible to generate a similar response in the CNS.
Co-author Dr Radhika Puttagunta from the University of Tuebingen said: "With this work we add another level of understanding into the specific mechanisms of how the body is able to regenerate in the PNS and have used this knowledge to drive regeneration where it is lacking in the CNS. We believe this will help further our understanding of mechanisms that could enhance regeneration and physical recovery after CNS injury."
To investigate the differences between how the two systems respond to damage, the researchers looked at mouse models and cells in culture. They compared the responses to PNS damage and CNS damage in a type of neuron called a dorsal root ganglion, which connects to both the CNS and the PNS.
They found that epigenetic mechanisms were at the core of this capacity to regenerate. Epigenetic mechanisms are processes that, without altering our DNA, manage to activate or deactivate genes in response to the environment. They normally take the form of chemical reactions and have been shown to control how genes influence diseases such as cancer and diabetes. However this is the first demonstration of a specific epigenetic mechanism responsible for nerve regeneration.
When nerves are damaged in the PNS, the damaged nerves send 'retrograde' signals back to the cell body to switch on an epigenetic program to initiate nerve growth. Very little was previously known about the mechanism which allows this 'switching on' to occur.
The researchers identified the sequence of chemical events that lead to the 'switching on' of the program to initiate nerve regrowth and pinpointed the protein PCAF as being central to the process. Furthermore when they injected PCAF into mice with damage to their central nervous system, there was a significant increase in the number of nerve fibers that grew back.
The research was funded by the Hertie Foundation, the Wings for Life Spinal Cord Research Foundation and the German Research Foundation (DFG).
You're reading Disabled World. Be sure to check out our homepage for further informative disability news, reviews, disability sports events, exclusive stories and how-tos. You can also find us on Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn.
Related Spinal Cord Injury Documents
- 1 - Cell Pores Discovery: Hope for Millions of Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Patients : Scientists discover new treatment to dramatically reduce swelling after brain and spinal cord injuries, offering hope to 75 million victims worldwide each year.
- 2 - Cervical Hernias Can Cause Brain Damage Research Reveals : Specialist reserchers detect brain damage in patients with cervical hernias by using neuroimage and artificial intelligence techniques.
- 3 - Spinal Cord Neural Stem Cells Show Diverse Promise for SCI : Derived from human pluripotent stem cells, these diverse cells advance disease modeling and may provide new, scalable source of replacement cells for spinal cord injuries (SCI).
- 4 - New Hope of Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Recovery : New study offers hope of recovery from spinal cord injury, novel enzyme treatment may reduce inflammation and scarring that prevent neuronal regeneration.
- 5 - Experimental Drug Restores Some Bladder Function After SCI : LM11A-31 appears to help by blocking dual activity of pro-nerve growth factor (proNGF) and a receptor called p75.
*Disclaimer: Disabled World provides general information only. Materials presented are in no way meant to be a substitute for professional medical care by a qualified practitioner, nor should they be construed as such. Any 3rd party offering or advertising on disabled-world.com does not constitute endorsement by Disabled World. View our Advertising Policy for further information. Please report outdated or inaccurate information to us.
Journal: Disabled World. Language: English (U.S.). Author: Imperial College London. Electronic Publication Date: 2014-04-01. Title: New Hope for Repairing Nerves After Spinal Cord Injury, Source: <a href=https://www.disabled-world.com/disability/types/spinal/nerves.php>New Hope for Repairing Nerves After Spinal Cord Injury</a>. Retrieved 2021-05-07, from https://www.disabled-world.com/disability/types/spinal/nerves.php - Reference: DW#248-10199.