In humans health is the ability of individuals or communities to adapt and self-manage when facing physical, mental or social challenges. The World Health Organization (WHO) defined health in its broader sense in its 1948 constitution as "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." This definition has been subject to controversy, in particular as lacking operational value and because of the problem created by use of the word "complete" Other definitions have been proposed, among which a recent definition that correlates health and personal satisfaction. Classification systems such as the WHO Family of International Classifications, including the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), are commonly used to define and measure the components of health.
Today, about 1 in 5 people worldwide, are living with at least one disability, and most people will experience a disability of some form during the course of their lives.
It is important to remember disability does not necessarily equate to poor health.
For example, in the early stages of disability associated with paraplegia, the affected person may be considered in poor health and may have a greater need for medical and health care, but once their condition is stable they may enjoy good health.
Disability does not include situations that are not health-related, such as participation restriction solely due to socioeconomic factors. This distinguishes disability from disadvantage or exclusion unrelated to health. However, presence of disability and severity of disability are often associated with individuals' socioeconomic environments.
People's health is increasingly conceptualized in terms of their quality of life, what activities they can do, in what areas of life they are able to participate as they wish, and what long-term supports they need for living in the community.
Disability and Health
The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) defines disability as an umbrella term for impairments, activity limitations and participation restrictions.
Disability is the interaction between individuals with a health condition (e.g. cerebral palsy, Down syndrome and depression) and personal and environmental factors (e.g. negative attitudes, inaccessible transportation and public buildings, and limited social supports).
Disability is extremely diverse
While some health conditions associated with disability result in poor health and extensive health care needs, others do not. However all people with disabilities have the same general health care needs as everyone else, and therefore need access to mainstream health care services.
Article 25 of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) reinforces the right of persons with disabilities to attain the highest standard of health care, without discrimination.
Health conditions are a prerequisite (but not a determinant), and personal factors may also influence outcomes.
Environmental factors include all the physical and social aspects of the environment that may affect a person's experience of disability, including equipment used or personal assistance provided.
Environmental factors may act as facilitators that diminish disability, or barriers that create it.
People with disabilities face many barriers to good health.
Studies show that individuals with disabilities are more likely than people without disabilities to report:
There are many types of disabilities, such as those that affect a person's:
Disabilities can affect people in different ways, even when one person has the same type of disability as another person. Some disabilities may be hidden or not easy to see.
Staying Healthy with Physical Activity
Adults with disabilities should try to get at least 2 hours and 30 minutes (150 minutes) a week of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity (i.e., brisk walking; wheeling oneself in a wheelchair) or at least 1 hour and 15 minutes (75 minutes) a week of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity (i.e., jogging, wheelchair basketball) or a mix of both moderate and vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activities each week.
A rule of thumb is that 1 minute of vigorous-intensity activity is about the same as 2 minutes of moderate-intensity activity. They should avoid inactivity as some physical activity is better than none.
Muscle-strengthening activities should include moderate and high intensity, and involve all major muscle groups on two or more days a week (i.e., working with resistance-band, adapted yoga) as these activities provide additional health benefits. All children and adolescents should do 1 hour (60 minutes) or more of physical activity each day.
If a person with a disability is not able to meet the physical activity guidelines, they should engage in regular physical activity based on their abilities and should avoid inactivity. Adults with disabilities should talk to their healthcare provider about the amounts and types of physical activity that are appropriate for their abilities.
People with disabilities can lead long healthy lives.
Many can and do go to school and attend places of worship.
They also vote, marry, have children, work, and play.
Having a disability does not mean a person can not be healthy.
The use of colored ribbons is designed to draw awareness to health and other issues.
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Full List of Health and Disability Documents (94 Items)