Bladder Carcinoma: Bladder Cancer Stages and Information
Author: Thomas C. Weiss : Contact: www.disabled-world.com
Published: 2009-04-01 : (Rev. 2020-01-11)
Synopsis and Key Points:
Bladder Carcinoma or bladder cancer is a disease in which malignant cells form in the tissues of the bladder.
According to the TNM (tumor, lymph node, and metastases) classification system the cancer stage is classified by the location, size and aggressiveness.
Studies have shown that several risk factors may contribute to the development of bladder cancer.
Invasive Bladder Cancer, Bladder Carcinoma, Invasive Bladder Carcinoma, Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder, Transitional Cell Cancer of the Bladder, Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder, Squamous Cell Cancer of the Bladder, Adenocarcinoma of the Bladder, Urinary Cancer, Urinary Carcinoma
Bladder cancer is defined as any of several types of cancer arising from the epithelial lining (i.e., the urothelium) of the urinary bladder. Rarely the bladder is involved by non-epithelial cancers, such as lymphoma or sarcoma, but these are not ordinarily included in the colloquial term "bladder cancer." It is a disease in which abnormal cells multiply without control in the bladder. Bladder cancer is a tumor within the bladder, usually starting with the cells lining the bladder walls.
Most bladder cancers are transitional cell carcinomas.
Other types include squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The cells that form squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma develop in the inner lining of the bladder as a result of chronic irritation and inflammation.
Cancer that begins in the transitional cells may spread through the lining of the bladder and invade the muscle wall of the bladder or spread to nearby organs and lymph nodes. This is called Invasive Bladder Cancer.
These abnormal cells multiply without control.
The tumor may or may not be malignant depending on the invasiveness of the type of cancer involved. The cause of bladder cancer is uncertain as with most types of cancer. Studies have shown that several risk factors may contribute to the development of bladder cancer.
About 25 percent of bladder cancer can be attributed to the exposure to cancer-causing chemicals or carcinogens in the workplace. The chemicals that belong to the Arylamines and Benzidine families are considered the most responsible. Arylamines exposure used to be very high in Dye, Rubber, Aluminum, Leather industry workers along with truck drivers and pesticide applicators but most arylamines usage has been reduced in the workplace because of government regulation.
Radiation therapy for women with cervical cancer have an increased risk of developing bladder cancer. Certain drugs are known to result in a high risk factor to developing bladder cancer such as chemotherapy agent cyclophosphamide and the analgesic phenacetin. Repeated or chronic bladder infections may also lead to the type of cancer called squamous cell bladder cancer. This type of bladder cancer is very slow growing and as with all cancers, early detection can lead to a higher cure rate.
According to the TNM (tumor, lymph node, and metastases) classification system the cancer stage is classified by the location, size and aggressiveness. Recently the TNM staging system has become very popular with the medical industry to describe all types of cancer.
Stages of Bladder Cancer
The TNM staging system is divided into 5 main stages along with several sub stages using the following scale.
- Stage 0 - Tumors limited to the bladder lining but do not extend through the bladder wall lining.
- Stage 1 - Tumors involve the layer beyond the lining of the bladder and beyond but do not involve the muscles of the bladder.
- Stage 2 - Tumors involve the muscles in the bladder.
- Stage 3 - Tumors involve the fatty tissue surrounding the bladder, the prostate gland, the vagina or uterus.
- Stage 4 - Tumors have spread into the lymph nodes or other areas of the body such as the liver, lungs and bones.
The following symptoms of bladder cancer can also be associated with non-cancerous conditions. Nerveless any symptom of a suspicious nature should be always evaluated by a trained urologist. Early detection is critical in the successful outcome of all cancer treatments.
- A medical professional should always be consulted if you have blood in the urine or if the urine becomes cloudy. The color of ones urine does give great insight into the internal condition of the urinary track.
- Urinary frequency, increased frequency in the need to urinate. This could also be sign of a bladder infection called cystitis, bladder irritation called interstitial cystitis, or from a kidney stone.
- Painful urination could also be caused by a bladder infection, kidney stone or another serious problem.
- Urinary urgency just after using the restroom and when you do you only urinate small amounts. Could be a bladder infection called cystitis, bladder irritation called interstitial cystitis, or from a kidney stone.
Some women report urinary incontinence after childbirth and may be caused from a weakness in the bladder due to childbirth or aging. This weakness is called stress incontinence - suggested reading kegel exercises and vaginal weight training.
- Common Vitamins and over the counter products such as Vitamin A, Cranberry Juice, and L-cysteine can help with treating Bladder problems.
- Vitamin A deficiency may increase the risk of cancers of the lung, larynx, bladder, esophagus, stomach, colon, rectum and prostate.
- Cranberry Juice may also help prevent kidney and bladder infections. If you are taking COUMADIN then check with your doctor before using cranberry.
- L-cysteine is another immune system stimulant but should always be taken in conjunction with Vitamin C to reduce the risk of developing stone formation in the kidneys and bladder.
The following may be used to diagnose the disease:
- Physical exam and history
- CT scan
- Intravenous pyelogram (IVP)
- Cystoscopy (examination of urinary tract),
- Biopsy, and/or urine cytology (microscopic study of cells).
The following may also be used to determine if the cancer has spread:
- Chest x-ray
- Bone scan
Treatment may include surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, and biologic therapy.
Surgical options may include transurethral resection (TUR), radical cystectomy, segmental cystectomy, and/or urinary diversion. Some patients may receive chemotherapy after surgery. This post-surgical treatment is referred to as adjuvant therapy. If the cancer is inoperable or unresectable, treatment with radiation and/or chemotherapy can be utilized for palliation, but the prognosis is poor.
Bladder Cancer Statistics
- The most common type of bladder cancer recapitulates the normal histology of the urothelium and is known as transitional cell carcinoma or more properly urothelial cell carcinoma. Five-year survival rates in the United States are around 77%.
- In the United States, bladder cancer is the fourth most common type of cancer in men and the ninth most common cancer in women.
- Globally, in 2010, bladder cancer resulted in 170,000 deaths up from 114,000 in 1990.
- Bladder cancer is the 9th leading cause of cancer with 430,000 new cases and 165,000 deaths occurring in 2012.
- Bladder cancer is the seventh most common cancer in the UK (around 10,400 people were diagnosed with the disease in 2011), and it is the seventh most common cause of cancer death (around 5,200 people died in 2012).
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