March is National Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month
Author: Mayo Clinic(i) : Contact: mayoclinic.org
Published: 2009-03-13 : (Rev. 2019-04-25)
Synopsis and Key Points:
Learn about colorectal cancer (cancer of the colon and rectum) and how it can be prevented or treated.
Colorectal cancer screening costs are covered by Medicare and most commercial health insurance plans.
Rectal cancer is cancer of the last several inches of the colon.
Colorectal cancer (also known as colon cancer, rectal cancer or bowel cancer) is the development of cancer in the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine). It is due to the abnormal growth of cells that have the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
- Rectal cancer is cancer of the last several inches of the colon.
- Colon cancer is cancer of the large intestine (colon), the lower part of your digestive system.
Together, they're often referred to as colorectal cancers. Signs and symptoms may include blood in the stool, a change in bowel movements, weight loss, and feeling tired all the time.
Colorectal cancer (cancer of the colon and rectum) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States (after lung cancer). March is National Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month, so it's a good time to learn more about colorectal cancer and how it can be prevented or best treated.
According to the American Cancer Society, almost 150,000 new cases of colorectal cancer were diagnosed and approximately 50,000 people died from the disease last year. Despite these statistics, unlike some cancers, colorectal cancer is highly preventable and can be detected early through proper screening.
"Although a potentially serious disease if left undetected and untreated, colorectal cancer can often be prevented through regular screenings, a healthy diet and regular exercise," explained Ron Landmann, M.D., a colorectal surgeon at Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville. "The key is catching it early if the disease is present, hence the importance of regular screenings."
What are the symptoms of colorectal cancer?
Colorectal cancer often has no symptoms until the disease has progressed beyond its earliest stages. Some potential signs and symptoms of colorectal cancer to watch for and ask your physician about include:
- A change in bowel habits such as diarrhea, constipation, or narrowing of the stool that lasts for more than a few days
- A feeling that you need to have a bowel movement that doesn't go away after doing so
- Rectal bleeding, dark stools, or blood in the stool
- Cramping or stomach pain
- Weakness and tiredness
Most colorectal cancers begin as a polyp, which is a tissue growth that starts in the lining of the colon or rectum. Identifying and removing a polyp early in its development may prevent it from becoming cancerous.
Who is at risk for colorectal cancer?
The risk of developing colorectal cancer increases with age. Men and women aged 50 and older are at an increased risk for developing colorectal cancer, and should be screened at least every 5-10 years. Some people are at a higher risk and should be screened at an age younger than 50, including those with a personal or family history of inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer or polyps.
Current screening methods include:
- fecal occult blood testing (a simple chemical test that can detect hidden blood in the stool),
- flexible sigmoidoscopy (a visual examination of the rectum and lower portion of the colon, performed in a doctor's office),
- and colonoscopy (a visual examination of the entire colon).
"Colonoscopy remains the gold standard for colorectal cancer screening and is a very safe and effective procedure when performed by a physician with specialized training in gastrointestinal disorders," said Michael Wallace, M.D., a gastroenterologist at Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville. "Newer procedures including virtual biopsies and the use of high-definition scopes are making colonoscopy even more effective at detecting and treating early signs of colon cancer."
A large clinical study at the Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville found that new high-definition colonoscopes even further reduce the chance of missing small polyps in the colon. The Digestive Disease Center at Mayo Clinic has now implemented high-definition colonoscopy throughout its practice to take advantage of this important breakthrough.
Colorectal cancer screening costs are covered by Medicare and most commercial health insurance plans, usually starting at age 50 for the most common tests. You should find out from your healthcare provider which screening procedure is right for you and how often you should be screened.
How can I lower my risk?
To lower your risk of colorectal cancer, the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons recommends that you:
- Get regular colorectal cancer screenings beginning at age 50. Between 80-90 percent of colorectal cancer patients are restored to normal health if their cancer is detected and treated in the earliest stages.
- Eat a low-fat, high-fiber diet.
- If you use alcohol, drink only in moderation. If you use tobacco, quit. If you don't use tobacco, don't start. Alcohol and tobacco in combination are linked to colorectal cancer and many other cancers.
- Exercise for at least 20 minutes three to four days each week. Moderate exercise such as walking, gardening or climbing steps may help.
Can colorectal cancer be cured?
Since there are very few symptoms associated with colorectal cancer, regular screening is essential. Screening is beneficial for two main reasons: colorectal cancer is extremely preventable if polyps that lead to the cancer are detected and removed, and it is very curable if the cancer is detected in its early stages.
"If detected, colorectal cancer requires surgery in nearly all cases for complete cure, sometimes in conjunction with radiation and chemotherapy," said Dr. Landmann. "Between 80-90 percent of patients are restored to normal health if the cancer is detected and treated in the earliest stages. However, the cure rate drops to 50 percent or less when diagnosed in the later stages."
In addition, studies have shown that patients treated by colorectal surgeons "experts in the surgical and nonsurgical treatment of colon and rectal problems "are more likely to survive colorectal cancer and experience fewer complications.
What kind of treatments and trials are available for colorectal cancer?
Some cancers, if caught very early, can be treated with colonoscopy and without the need for surgery.
Newer more advanced minimally invasive techniques, such as laparoscopic or endoscopic resections, allow more patients to undergo curative surgery without the need for lengthy hospital stays or a stoma ("bag").
With these techniques, pain is considerably less and patients are able to return to work and their daily activities in significantly less time than with standard operations.
At Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, colorectal surgeons and gastroenterologists specialize in the latest laparoscopic and endoscopic resection techniques for cancer as well as benign and inflammatory diseases such as diverticulitis, ulcerative colitis, or Crohn's disease.
New nationwide clinical studies are currently ongoing involving these techniques for cancer. The Colon & Rectal Surgery group at Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville is one of the approved centers for these trials.
(i)Source/Reference: Mayo Clinic. Disabled World makes no warranties or representations in connection therewith. Content may have been edited for style, clarity or length.
- 1 - Left or Right Primary Tumor Location Predicts Colon Cancer Survival Rate : Medical News (2016/06/08)
- 2 - Colonoscopy: Information and What to Expect : Disabled World (2014/03/15)
- 3 - March is National Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month : Mayo Clinic (2009/03/13)
- 4 - Female Colorectal Cancer: Symptoms, Pregnancy Risks and Treatments : Thomas C. Weiss (2015/08/10)
- 5 - Colonoscopy Recommendations for 1 to 2 Polyps Consistent with Guidelines : American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (2014/04/17)
- 6 - Colorectal Cancer Screening Rates Remain Low for Adults with Disabilities : University of Missouri-Columbia (2017/04/03)
- 7 - Colon Cancer Rates Rapidly Decreasing in U.S. Seniors : American Cancer Society (2014/03/17)
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