Kidney cancer is cancer that originates in the kidneys. Your kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of your fist. They're located behind your abdominal organs, with one kidney on each side of your spine. The two most common types of kidney cancer are renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the renal pelvis. These names reflect the type of cell from which the cancer developed.
The Kidney organs are responsible for elimination of waste material from the blood through the urine and production of hormones, which regulate blood pressure and control red blood cell production.
In the human body, the Kidneys are located toward the back of the flank, with one Kidney on either side. The majority of people have two Kidneys, which produce urine and drain through narrow tubes called Ureters into the bladder.
Just above the Kidneys are the Adrenal glands, and they produce hormones that are essential and sustain life. These hormones regulate blood pressure, stress responses and sugar levels in the blood as well as Epinephrine, something which controls the pulse rate and blood pressure.
The body can function well enough with one Kidney and one adrenal gland if they are healthy. One healthy Kidney and one healthy Adrenal gland allows for the removal of one entire Kidney and Adrenal gland if necessary to remove a cancer located in the kidney area. If a patient has poor kidney function prior to development of Kidney cancer it might not be possible to remove one kidney and still have normal function.
The Kidney is held inside of the, 'Gerota's Fascia,' a kind of fibrous sheath.
Inside of the Gerota's Fascia is a layer of fat that surrounds the Kidney. The layer of fat is a thin and covers the outer surface of the Kidney, somewhat like the outer layer of an apple. There is a primary vein that drains the kidney, called a, 'renal vein,' and it merges with the vein that takes blood to the heart, called the, 'Vena Cava.' The word, 'renal,' means in regards to the Kidney. An Adrenal gland is located above each Kidney within Gerota's Fascia.
The words, 'mass,' 'lesion,' and, 'tumor,' are many times used interchangeably. Tumors may be, 'Benign,' meaning that the tumor is not cancerous, or, 'Malignant,' meaning that it is cancerous.
Cysts are the most common type of Kidney tumor, and are fluid-filled. Simple Cysts are both benign and usually do not require follow up treatment; they have a typical appearance on imaging studies. Complex Cysts, on the other hand, might be cancerous; they also do not have a typical benign appearance on imaging studies. If a Complex Cyst is found, treatment is determined on an individual basis.
One other form of Kidney tumor is a solid Kidney Tumor, named because it is not fluid-filled. A Solid Kidney Tumor may or may not be benign; they are usually malignant. Over ninety-percent of all Solid Kidney Tumors are malignant.
Kidney cancer is the seventh most common cancer and the tenth most common cause of cancer death for men, and it is the tenth most common cause of cancer for women. Most people with kidney cancer are older. The average age of people when they are diagnosed is 64. Kidney cancer is very uncommon in people younger than age 45.
Slightly more men than women find themselves battling Kidney cancer, and are usually diagnosed with it between the ages of fifty and seventy years of age; although it can happen at any age. For adults the most common form of Kidney Cancer is, 'Renal Cell Carcinoma,' which is also know as, 'Renal Adenocarcinoma,' or, 'Hypernephroma.'>
The American Cancer Society's most recent estimates for kidney cancer in the United States are for 2015:
These numbers include all types of kidney and renal pelvis cancers.
With increasing organ demand, living kidney donation from older donors has become more common. A new Clinical Transplantation study indicates that kidney donation among carefully-selected adults over 60 years of age poses minimal perioperative risks and no added risk of long-term kidney failure.
A combination of an aging population and an overwhelming kidney transplant waitlist will necessarily compel transplant centers into accepting more older donors as a way to expand the donor pool.
"What this study demonstrates is that carefully-selected older kidney donors are at no higher risk, short-term or long-term, than their younger counterparts and this finding has the potential to expand the donor pool by making accessible a whole segment of the population that previously was perceived high-risk for donation," said lead author Dr. Oscar Serrano, of the University of Minnesota - Wiley
The most common signs and symptoms of kidney cancer are a mass in the abdomen and/or blood in the urine (or hematuria). Other symptoms may include tiredness, loss of appetite, weight loss, a high temperature and heavy sweating, and persistent pain in the abdomen. However, many of these symptoms can be caused by other conditions, and there may also be no signs or symptoms in a person with kidney cancer, especially in the early stages of the disease.
A Kidney imaging study is one of the first things a doctor usually orders when a Kidney Tumor is suspected, and takes the form of a CT Scan, an MRI, or an Ultrasound. Sometimes a doctor will order a combination of these imaging tests so they may obtain a complete evaluation of the tumor. If the doctor suspects that a tumor is cancerous, they will evaluate the patient to find out if the cancer has spread beyond the kidney. A biopsy may be performed in the case of Renal Cell Carcinoma.
Doctors discourage general biopsies of kidney cancer for many reasons, to include the potential for false negative readings, the vascularity of the tissue, as well as the fact that if it is cancerous it can, in rare cases, spread along the exit path of the needle used to obtain the biopsy.
When a biopsy is performed a doctor removes a sample of the tissue so they may examine it underneath a microscope. When examined underneath a microscope there are two distinct cell types that are visible. These cell types include either Clear Cell or Granular Cell, or, 'Sarcomatoid,' cells. Cancer cells are a mixture of both forms of cells. The kinds of cells usually do not influence the outcome following treatment, but in some studies certain medication results in improved outcomes for patients who have Clear Cell Carcinoma.
Treatment for kidney cancer depends on the type and stage of the disease. Surgery is typically the mainstay of treatment and it usually doesn't involve chemotherapy and radiotherapy, as kidney cancers often do not respond to these treatments.