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List of Kidney Diseases and Conditions

Published: 2018-08-04 - Updated: 2022-08-18
Author: Disabled World | Contact: Disabled World (Disabled-World.com)
Peer-Reviewed Publication: N/A
Additional References: Kidney Cancer Publications

Synopsis: List of possible acute and chronic kidney diseases and other medical conditions that can affect human kidney function. Most kidney diseases attack the nephron filters in the kidneys, and the damage can be such as leaving both kidneys unable to remove wastes and toxins. Treatment for chronic kidney disease mainly focuses on slowing the progression of the damage to the kidney - usually by trying to control the underlying cause.

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Definition

Human Kidneys

Human kidneys are two reddish-brown bean-shaped organs found in vertebrates. They are located on the left and right in the retroperitoneal space and, in adult humans, are about 12 centimeters (4 1/2 inches) in length. Your kidneys remove wastes and extra fluid from your body. Your kidneys also remove acid produced by your body's cells and maintain a healthy balance of water, salts, and minerals such as sodium, calcium, phosphorus, and potassium in your blood. Without this balance, your body's nerves, muscles, and other tissues may not work normally. Your kidneys also make hormones that help:

  • Make red blood cells
  • Control your blood pressure
  • Keep your bones strong and healthy

Main Digest

Humans have two kidneys, each about the size of your fist. The kidneys are located near the middle of the back - just below the rib cage. Inside each kidney are tiny structures called nephrons - about a million of them! Their job is to filter all the blood circulating in the body. The kidneys remove wastes, toxins, and excess water, which becomes the waste product known as urine. The urine flows from each kidney through tubes called ureters. The urine collects in the bladder, which stores the urine until you pee.

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Most kidney diseases attack these nephron filters in the kidneys, and the damage can be to leave both kidneys unable to remove wastes and toxins. Causes can include genetic problems, injuries, or certain medicines. You have a higher risk of kidney disease if you have diabetes, high blood pressure (hypertension), or a family member with kidney disease. Chronic kidney disease damages the nephrons slowly over several years.

What is Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)?

More often, kidney function worsens over several years. This is known as chronic kidney disease. Sometimes it can progress to end-stage kidney disease, which requires dialysis or a kidney transplant to keep you alive. Treatment for chronic kidney disease mainly focuses on slowing the progression of the damage to the kidney - usually by trying to control the underlying cause. Chronic kidney disease can progress to end-stage kidney failure, fatal without artificial filtering (dialysis) or a kidney transplant.

What is Acute Kidney Injury (AKI)?

Acute kidney injury is sudden kidney damage within a few hours or days. Acute kidney injury is also known as acute kidney or renal failure. It may occur due to damage to the kidney tissue caused by decreased kidney blood flow (kidney ischemia) from any cause (e.g., low blood pressure), exposure to substances and toxins harmful to the kidney, an inflammatory process in the kidney, or an obstruction of the urinary tract that impedes the flow of urine. AKI is a severe condition and requires immediate medical treatment. In many cases, it will be short-term, but it may lead to long-term chronic kidney disease in some people. Acute kidney injury is more commonly found in patients in hospitals, intensive care units, or among seniors.

Labeled Cross Section of a Human Kidney

Labeled anatomy of the human kidney. Blausen.com staff (2014). Medical gallery of Blausen Medical 2014. WikiJournal of Medicine 1 (2). DOI:10.15347/wjm/2014.010. ISSN 2002-4436.
Labeled anatomy of the human kidney. Blausen.com staff (2014). Medical gallery of Blausen Medical 2014. WikiJournal of Medicine 1 (2). DOI:10.15347/wjm/2014.010. ISSN 2002-4436.

*This list is for informational purposes only and may be outdated, incorrect, or incomplete. Your doctor can do routine blood and urine tests to check if you may have kidney disease.

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Cite This Page (APA): Disabled World. (2018, August 4). List of Kidney Diseases and Conditions. Disabled World. Retrieved January 30, 2023 from www.disabled-world.com/health/cancer/kidney/aki-ckd.php

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