Pancreatic Cancer: Types and General Information

Author: Disabled World - Contact Details
Updated/Revised Date: 2023/01/31
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Synopsis: Information on human pancreatic cancer of the pancreas, a gland that is about six inches in length and located in the abdomen. The pancreas has two essential functions; the first is called the exocrine function, which involves the production of enzymes that assist digestion. The pancreas' second function is endocrine, involving the production of two hormones; insulin and glucagon. If pancreatic cancer is detected at an early stage when surgical removal of the tumor is possible, the five-year survival rate is about 26%. If cancer has spread to the surrounding organs or tissue (regional spread), the five-year survival rate is 10%. If cancer has spread to parts of the body far away from the ovary (distant spread), the five-year survival rate is 2%.


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The pancreas is a gland about six inches in length and is located in the abdomen. The stomach, liver, and spleen surround the pancreas and small intestine and are shaped somewhat like a small pear. The wide end of the pancreas is referred to as the 'head,' while the middle portion of it is called the 'body.' The pancreas's thin end section is called the 'tail.' Bending backward and underneath the head of the pancreas is an uncinate process of the gland.

The U.S. Social Security Administration (SSA) has included Pancreatic Cancer as a Compassionate Allowance to expedite a disability claim.

The pancreas has two essential functions; the first is called the exocrine function, which involves the production of enzymes that assist digestion. The pancreas' second function is endocrine, involving the production of two hormones; insulin and glucagon. Cells inside the pancreas create and secrete both glucagon and insulin into the bloodstream; these hormones work together to preserve proper blood sugar levels.

If the cells within the pancreas begin to grow out of control, a tumor may develop. In the majority of cases of pancreatic cancer, the cells which line the pancreatic duct are the ones that are involved. In these cases, the form of tumor is an exocrine tumor known as an 'Adenocarcinoma.' There is another, less common form of pancreatic tumor that starts in islet cells in the pancreas; it is known as an 'endocrine tumor.'

Pancreatic cancer arises when cells in the pancreas, a glandular organ behind the stomach, begin to multiply out of control and form a mass. These cancer cells can invade other parts of the body. There are several types of pancreatic cancer. The most common, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, accounts for about 85% of cases, and the term "pancreatic cancer" is sometimes used to refer only to that type.

There are usually no symptoms in the disease's early stages, and symptoms that are specific enough to suspect pancreatic cancer typically do not develop until the disease has reached an advanced stage. By diagnosis, pancreatic cancer has often spread to other body parts.

Signs and symptoms of the most common form of pancreatic cancer may include:

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Medical Illustration of the human pancreas and nearby organs and structures in the digestive tract (liver, common bile duct, stomach, spleen, gall bladder, duodenum, small intestine, and large intestine).
Medical Illustration of the human pancreas and nearby organs and structures in the digestive tract (liver, common bile duct, stomach, spleen, gall bladder, duodenum, small intestine, and large intestine).

Forms of Exocrine Pancreatic Cancer

Ninety-five percent of all pancreatic cancers are Exocrine tumors; there are many types of Exocrine tumors. The most common type of Exocrine tumor is an Adenocarcinoma.

Acinar Cell Carcinoma

An Acinar Cell Carcinoma is a rare, cancerous tumor that might cause excessive production of pancreatic digestive enzymes.


An Adenocarcinoma is a tumor that accounts for nearly seventy-five percent of all forms of pancreatic cancers. It commonly starts in the cells that line the pancreatic duct. Adenocarcinomas might form glands or a collection of cells that surround a space.

Adenosquamous Carcinoma

An Adenosquamous Carcinoma is a form of tumor that is similar to an Adenocarcinoma because it creates glads, yet is different because it begins to flatten as it grows and can imitate other types of cancers, showing squamous differentiation.

Giant Cell Tumor

Giant Cell Tumors are rare and not as aggressive as Adenocarcinomas. They have huge cells. Still, they do not grow any larger than other pancreatic tumors.

Intraductal Papillary-Mucinous Neoplasm (IPMN)

An Intraductal Papillary-Mucinous Neoplasm is a tumor that begins its growth in the pancreatic duct or possibly from one of the side branches of the duct. The IPMN tumor is seemingly finger-like, projecting into the duct, and can either be diagnosed as benign or malignant.

Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma

A Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma is a rare, fluid-filled cystic tumor that has the potential to develop into cancer over some time. It is a spongy tumor, and the space inside is filled with a fluid called, 'mucin.' Among tumors, this form has a better prognosis than other pancreatic tumors.


Pancreatoblastoma is another rare form of the tumor but is a malignant one. Pancreatoblastomas are usually found in children under ten, which is why it is often called the 'pancreatic cancer of infancy.' Fortunately, the prognosis for this form of cancer is better than other pancreatic cancer.

Serous Cystadenocarcinoma

Serous Cystadenocarcinoma is also rare. It is a benign, fluid-filled cystic tumor that is sponge-like in appearance. Even though it can grow to be large, it is almost always benign.

Solid and Pseudopapilslary Tumors

Solid and Pseudopapilslary Tumors might begin anywhere in the pancreas. The parts of the tumor differ; some parts of solid, and other parts have finger-like projections (papillary). Solid and Pseudopapsilslary tumors are found primarily in women in their thirties.

Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer

When cancer spreads, it is called 'metastasizing.' As pancreatic cancer spreads outside the pancreas itself, one of the places it spreads to is the lymph nodes, which are nearby. These lymph nodes are a part of a more extensive lymph system that consists of ducts and vessels that exist throughout the entire body. These help the body to filter out foreign materials and remove them. With cancer cells in the lymph nodes, cancer may have spread to other tissues and organs in the body, like the lungs or liver. Even though cancer may have spread to other organs in the body, it began in the pancreas and is still referred to as Pancreatic Cancer and treated as such.

Types of Endocrine Pancreatic Cancer

Five percent of pancreatic tumors are Endocrine tumors, also called 'neuroendocrine tumors' or 'islet cell tumors.' In the pancreas are islet cells that produce hormones responsible for glucose, insulin, and somatostatin. One of these hormones' major functions is controlling sugar in the bloodstream. Endocrine tumors are often slower to grow than other tumors and can be either benign or malignant. The endocrine tumor may be either functional in that they produce hormones, or they may be non-function in that they do not. The non-functional tumors are malignant ninety percent of the time. Below is a description of different types of Endocrine tumors.

Gastrinoma (Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome)

Gastrinoma is commonly associated with abdominal pain, diarrhea, and recurrent ulcers; obtaining a diagnosis is typically dependent upon finding elevated gastrin hormone levels and imaging studies. Every so often, a Gastrinoma can be inherited. When it is a part of a genetic syndrome called 'Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1),' there is the potential for multiple tumors within the head of the pancreas or the duodenum. Most Gastrinomas are malignant; if they are not, they can potentially become malignant. With improved awareness and screening techniques, diagnosis of tumors while they are still benign is increasing.


A Glucogonoma is a form of tumor located in the pancreas's tail and body, usually large. Many times it will metastasize. About seventy percent of all glucagonomas are malignant; this form of pancreatic cancer can also be associated with diabetes, severe skin rashes, confusion, and depression.


Insulinoma is a common form of islet cell tumor; they are often small and hard to find. Fortunately, they are typically benign but tend to cause low blood sugar levels. Forms of tumors such as Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1), or 'Wermer Syndrome,' often present multiple tumors in the parathyroid glands and the pancreas. These tumors may be malignant as well. Symptoms from these tumors include muscle weakness and pain, fatigue, kidney stones, constipation, and bone thinning. People in their thirties and forties are frequently the groups of people that experience these tumors.

Nonfunctional Islet Cell Tumor

Nonfunctional Islet Cell Tumors are usually malignant tumors and do not cause well-defined symptoms like over-production of pancreatic hormones such as insulin.


Somatostatinomas may arise in the Ampulla of Vater, but they can also occur anywhere in the pancreas. Their ability to become malignant varies, like most pancreatic endocrine tumors, and if they are not removed, they can spread to other areas of the body.

Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide-Releasing Tumor

Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide-Realizing Tumors, or 'VIpoma,' or 'Verner-Morrison Syndrome,' tumors are typically found in the tail and body of the pancreas. One of the symptoms of a Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide-Releasing tumor is severe diarrhea and the loss of large amounts of potassium, a condition also known as 'hypokalemia.' Around two-thirds of these tumors are found in women. Another name knows this syndrome; is 'Watery Diarrhea,' but it is called 'Hypokalemia Achlorhydria' (WDHA) Syndrome as well.

Pancreatic Cancer Risk Factors:

Pancreatic Cancer Facts and Statistics

The American Cancer Society's most recent estimates for pancreatic cancer in the United States are for 2015:

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