Arterial-venous fistulas are abnormal blood vessels which can be closed with stainless steel coils.Coarctation of the aorta may be treated through either balloon dilation or stenting.Aortic stenosis or pulmonary stenosisPatent ductus arteriosus
Surgery is something that may become needed when none of the catheter-based procedures are effective, or would be. Surgery may relieve the symptoms the person experiences, yet may not cause their blood to flow normally. Examples of surgery that relieves symptoms but does not fix the underlying problem can include:
- Closing ventricular septal defects (VSDs) and atrial septal defects (ASDs) with sutures or a patch made from either artificial material or the patient's own tissue.
- Switching the great arteries back to their normal position and repositioning the coronary arteries in children who have transposition of the great arteries.
- Repairing the atrioventricular valves and closing the VSDs and/or ASDs associated with AV septal defect.
- Widening the pulmonic valve and closing the VSD associated with Tetralogy of Fallot.
- Widening the narrowed aorta in children with coarctation of the aorta.
There are also forms of surgery that can be used in order to improve the person's condition, yet do not completely repair the person's heart. These forms of surgery include:
- Modified Blalock-Taussig procedure
- Pulmonary artery band
- Fontan procedure
- Heart Valve Disease Awareness Day - U.S. National Heart Valve Disease Awareness Day occurs annually on February 22 - Alliance for Aging Research
- Heart Murmurs: Symptoms, Causes and Treatment - A heart murmur is a sound that may be heard through a stethoscope and is created when blood passes through specific areas of the heart - Disabled World
- Aortic Stenosis - Facts and Information - Information on aortic stenosis a disease a person may experience from birth or later on in life - Disabled World