Eating disorders are psychological illnesses defined by abnormal eating habits that may involve either insufficient or excessive food intake to the detriment of an individual's physical and mental health. Bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa are the most common specific forms of eating disorders. Other types of eating disorders include binge eating disorder and Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorder (OSFED).
What are Eating Disorders
An eating disorder is defined as a continual disturbance of eating or eating-related behavior that results in the altered consumption or absorption of food, significantly impairing physical health or psychological and social functioning.
Eating disorders are often long-term problems, which can cause immeasurable suffering for victims and their families.
There are generally two recognized types of eating disorders:
1. Anorexia Nervosa (AN)
This disorder's name means "loss of appetite." In reality, the person has not actually lost their appetite, but chooses to deny the hunger because of an unreasonable fear of becoming fat. If left untreated, anorexia nervosa can be fatal, with an estimated fatality rate of 6% in serious cases.
Restrictive Type: Individuals with this specific type of anorexia nervosa limit the amount of food they eat, typically eliminating foods that contain fat. These individuals also tend to exercise excessively to assist in weight loss.
Binge Eating/Purging Type: These individuals are first diagnosed with the restrictive type of anorexia nervosa and then begin to regularly engage in the binge eating and purging behaviors that are more commonly linked with bulimia nervosa.
Individuals with anorexia nervosa can be further categorized based on their eating behaviors.
2. Bulimia Nervosa (BN)
This eating disorder is described by repeated episodes of binge eating, during which large amounts of food are consumed in a short period of time (sometimes as many as 20,000 calories). To be diagnosed with bulimia nervosa, binge eating needs to occur at least twice every week for a 3-month period. As a result of the repeated binge eating, the person often feels depressed and guilty.
Purging Type: Individuals with this specific type of bulimia nervosa will have an episode of binge eating followed by self-induced vomiting, abuse of laxatives and/or diuretics (water-pills) to avoid gaining weight from the binge.
Non-Purging Type: Individuals with this specific type of bulimia nervosa will have an episode of binge eating and then use other behaviors to offset the behavior, such as fasting or excessive exercise. Individuals with this type of bulimia nervosa do not regularly engage in self-induced vomiting or the misuse of laxatives and/or diuretics.
Individuals with bulimia nervosa can be further categorized based on their purging behaviors.
Many times it is difficult to differentiate between anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Every individual who resorts to binge eating and purging may not be classified as bulimic because of the subgroup of patients diagnosed with anorexia nervosa who may also display these behaviors. Furthermore, a large percentage of individuals may have both eating disorders at the same time. It has been estimated that 50% of anorexics will develop bulimia nervosa and that 30% to 40% of bulimics will develop anorexia nervosa.
3. Binge Eating Disorder (BED)
This eating disorder is characterized by recurrent consumption of large amounts of food without purging, fasting, or excessive exercise. The difference between binge eating disorder and non-purging type bulimia nervosa is the behavior that takes place after binge eating. In non-purging type bulimia nervosa after binge eating the individual will try to offset their calorie consumption by fasting or excessive exercise. In binge eating disorder the individual does nothing to offset the calorie consumption.
What is EDNOS
EDNOS, Eating disorder not otherwise specified, is described as a category disorders of eating that do not meet the criteria for any specific eating disorder. People diagnosed with EDNOS may frequently switch between different eating patterns, or may with time fit all diagnostic criteria for anorexia or bulimia. People who eat a normal amount of food, but become exceedingly obsessed with healthy eating, or strictly categorize normal foods or entire food groups as "safe" and "off-limits", may be referred to as having orthorexia. However, this diagnosis is not formally accepted by the psychiatric community.
What causes Eating Disorders
The exact cause of eating disorders is unknown; however, physical, psychological, personal, and social issues have been associated with triggering eating disorders.
The social pressure to be thin affects everyone to some extent. Society is flooded with messages on TV, in the movies, in magazines, on billboards, and on the Internet that thinness brings beauty, success, and happiness. These messages can also come from an individual's family structure, culture, and way of life. Social and cultural pressures along with a low self-esteem are thought to be the major causes for the development of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Compare your technique with the methods recommended in our Using Medicine section.
No one factor causes an eating disorder, but a few or a combination of factors may increase the risk.
Here are some common psychological factors that may contribute to developing eating disorders:
family dysfunction - If individuals are at risk of developing an eating disorder, sometimes all it takes to put the ball in motion is a trigger event that the individual does not know how to handle. A trigger could be something as seemingly harmless as teasing or as devastating as rape.
Who has Eating Disorders
Currently, it is estimated that 7 million women and 1 million men suffer from an eating disorder. Eating disorders have reached epidemic levels in America in all segments of society; however, eating disorders are most common in individuals who have a higher social or economic background. This may be due to the fact that these individuals are continually striving to achieve the social standards of thinness in order to be accepted into their chosen career or lifestyle.
Almost all (86%) anorexics and bulimics begin their eating disorder related behaviors by the age of 20; however, reports that eating disorders are occurring in children 8 to 11 years of age are on the rise. Also, adults are not immune to eating disorders. A significant number of newly diagnosed anorexics and bulimics are in their upper 20s, 30s, and 40s.
It is estimated that about 6% of persons with serious cases of eating disorders die and only 50% report being cured. Therefore, it is a debilitating disease that has consequences if it is not realized (by the individual or people around them) and treated correctly.
What are the risk factors of Eating Disorders
Risk factors are characteristics that can make you more likely to develop a condition. The risks associated with developing an eating disorder are related to the following:
Symptoms of Eating Disorders
These disorders may become a compulsive addiction such as alcoholism. Most patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder report psychological impairments (mainly depression), shame, guilt, and withdrawal from social events.
Because many people are concerned about their weight, most people diet at least once in a while; however, it may be difficult to distinguish between normal dieting behaviors and abnormal dieting behaviors that could develop into a serious eating disorder. Not every individual will show all of the characteristics listed below for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, but people with eating disorders may clearly show several of them.
Signs of anorexia nervosa may include the following:
Signs of bulimia nervosa may include the following:
Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are closely related and several characteristics of the two eating disorders often overlap.
Signs associated with both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa may include the following:
If continued, the starving, binge eating, and purging can lead to irreversible physical damage and even death. Eating disorders can affect every cell, tissue, and organ in the body. The following is a list of some of the physical and medical dangers associated with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.
How are Eating Disorders Treated
There are many factors that contribute to the development of an eating disorder, and because each individual's situation is different, the "best treatment" must be tailored for that individual. The process begins with an evaluation by a physician or psychiatrist. From there, a variety of approaches are used to treat individuals with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.
A professional nutritionist or dietitian can help patients learn how to manage their weight effectively. Individualized guidance and a meal plan that provides a framework for meals and food choices (but not a rigid diet) are helpful for most individuals. Nutritionists can also help individuals better understand how their eating disorders can create serious medical problems.
Drug therapy in the treatment of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa should be used in combination with psychotherapy and nutritional therapy.
For anorexia nervosa, medications are used most frequently after weight and normal eating behaviors have been restored. Medications including certain antidepressants, anti-psychotics, and gastrointestinal stimulants are used to treat psychiatric and gastrointestinal symptoms that may coincide with eating disorders. Also calcium plus vitamin D supplementation is recommended for people with low bone mineral density (BMD) because of their high risk of developing bone loss and/or osteoporosis.
The Periwinkle color ribbon signifies Eating Disorder awareness including Anorexia nervosa, Bulimia nervosa, and Binge eating disorder. In Canada Eating Disorders Awareness Week is the first week of February. In Australia Body Image and Eating Disorder Awareness Week September 1 to 7th aims to raise awareness of eating disorders and poor body image in Australia.
Symptoms of anorexia nervosa include:
Symptoms of Bulimia nervosa include:
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