Autistic's Exceptional Visual Abilities
Synopsis: New research explains autistic's exceptional visual abilities with mapping data showing enhanced activity in the perception part of the brain. The current findings suggest a general functional reorganization of the brain in favor of perception processes - the processes by which information is recorded in the brain. This allows autistic individuals to successfully perform, albeit in their own way, higher-level cognitive tasks that would usually require a strong involvement of frontal areas in typical individuals. The finding shows that the autistic brain successfully adapt by reallocating brain areas to visual perception, and offers many new lines of inquiry regarding developmental brain plasticity and visual expertise in autistics.
Researchers directed by Dr. Laurent Mottron at the University of Montreal's Center for Excellence in Pervasive Development Disorders (CETEDUM) have determined that people with autism concentrate more brain resources in the areas associated with visual detection and identification, and conversely, have less activity in the areas used to plan and control thoughts and actions. This might explain their outstanding capacities in visual tasks. The team published their findings in Human Brain Mapping on April 4, 2011.
Aiming to understand why autistic individuals have strong abilities in terms of processing visual information, the researchers collated 15 years of data that covered the ways the autistic brain works when interpreting faces, objects and written words. The data came from 26 independent brain imaging studies that looked at a total of 357 autistic and 370 non-autistic individuals.
"Through this meta-analysis, we were able to observe that autistics exhibit more activity in the temporal and occipital regions and less activity in frontal cortex than non-autistics. The identified temporal and occipital regions are typically involved in perceiving and recognizing patterns and objects. The reported frontal areas sub-serve higher cognitive functions such as decision-making, cognitive control, planning and execution,'' explained first author Fabienne Samson, who is also affiliated with the CETEDUM.
"This stronger engagement of the visual processing brain areas in autism is consistent with the well documented enhanced visuo-spatial abilities in this population," Samson said.
The current findings suggest a general functional reorganization of the brain in favor of perception processes - the processes by which information is recorded in the brain. This allows autistic individuals to successfully perform, albeit in their own way, higher-level cognitive tasks that would usually require a strong involvement of frontal areas in typical individuals. These are tasks that require reasoning - for example, a research participant would be asked if a statement is true or false, or to categorize a range of objects into groups.
"We synthesized the results of neuroimaging studies using visual stimuli from across the world. The results are strong enough to remain true despite the variability between the research designs, samples and tasks, making the perceptual account of autistic cognition currently the most validated model," Mottron said.
"The stronger engagement of the visual system, whatever the task, represents the first physiological confirmation that enhanced perceptual processing is a core feature of neural organization in this population. We now have a strong statement about autism functioning which may be ground for cognitive accounts of autistic perception, learning, memory, and reasoning."
This finding shows that the autistic brain successfully adapt by reallocating brain areas to visual perception, and offers many new lines of inquiry regarding developmental brain plasticity and visual expertise in autistics.
About the Study
Dr. Isabelle Soulieres of the CETEDUM and the Neural Systems Group at the Massachusetts General Hospital (NSGMGH) and Dr. Thomas Zeffiro of the NSGMGH, also contributed to the findings. The CETEDUM is based at the University of Montreal affiliated Riviere-des-Prairies Hospital and is part of the Fernand-Seguin Research Center. It is formerly known as Center d'Excellence en Troubles Envahissants du Developpement de l'Universite de Montreal. The research was financed in part by grants from Autism Speaks, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, the Canadian Institutes for Health Research and the Fonds de la Recherché en Sante du Quebec.
This quality-reviewed publication pertaining to our Autism Information section was selected for circulation by the editors of Disabled World due to its likely interest to our disability community readers. Though the content may have been edited for style, clarity, or length, the article "Autistic's Exceptional Visual Abilities" was originally written by University of Montreal, and submitted for publishing on 2011/04/04 (Edit Update: 2022/04/27). Should you require further information or clarification, University of Montreal can be contacted at the umontreal.ca/en/ website. Disabled World makes no warranties or representations in connection therewith.
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