Similar Moral Judgements in Autistic and Non-autistic People
Author: University of Vienna : Contact: univie.ac.at
Study utilized well-known moral dilemma task which features hypothetical situations.
Autistic individuals have been frequently referred as lacking of empathy, with no or little concern for others' feelings, to the extent that a faction of media has tried to expose the role of possible autistic personalities behind extremely violent behaviors. This has led to stigmatization of this group with the public perception that autistic individuals can be cold, with no or little moral sense.
Alexithymia is defined as a personality construct characterized by the sub-clinical inability to identify and describe emotions in the self. The main characteristics of alexithymia are marked dysfunction in emotional awareness, social attachment, and interpersonal relating. Alexithymia is prevalent in approximately 10% of the population and is known to be comorbid with a number of psychiatric conditions. People with alexithymia often have difficulty in distinguishing and appreciating the emotions of others, which is thought to lead to unempathic and ineffective emotional responding.
The new study utilized well-known moral dilemma task which features hypothetical situations where the act of sacrificing a human life is necessary to reduce the overall harm (e.g., killing one person to save five other people) and asked autistic and healthy adults to provide their moral evaluations.
The results showed that these two groups did not differ in their moral judgments and severely condemned actions that required them to personally kill someone for the greater good. "The interesting result from our point of view," says Giorgia Silani, "was not that they provided similar judgments, it was why they did so."
Using advanced statistical modelling techniques, the authors could show that there are two different facets of autistic personality that have opposite tendencies which cancel each other out.
One is autism itself, which is associated with increased self-oriented distress that impels them to withdraw from stressful social situations and thereby is associated with refusal to engage in harmful behavior even if this leads to overall better outcome.
The other understudied aspect of autistic personality is alexithymia, which is associated with reduced empathy and thereby is associated with a tendency to engage in harmful behavior with utility-maximizing outcome.
"It's like these two subdimensions of autistic personality are sitting on a seesaw and are exerting oppositely directed forces and the final moral judgment autistics deliver depends on the balance between these two players," says Indrajeet Patil.
This work also highlights the importance of controlling for effects of alexithymia while studying moral judgments in other clinical disorders, like Multiple Sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, etc., which are known to have high levels of alexithymia. Without this, such disorders can be attributed moral or emotional impairments that are not endemic to them but actually stem from co-occurring alexithymia.
Publication in "Scientific Reports"
Patil, I., Melsbach, J., Hennig-Fast, K., & Silani, G. (2016). Divergent roles of autistic and alexithymic traits in utilitarian moral judgments in adults with autism.
Scientific Reports, 6:23637. Published online 29 March 2016 - DOI 10.1038/srep23637
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