Visual Pattern Preference May be Sign of Autism in Children
Synopsis: Preference for geometric patterns early in life may be a signature behavior in infants who are at-risk for autism. What an infant prefers to look at when given a choice between two images may be a more observable indicator of autism risk than how they look at a single picture. If your baby occasionally enjoys watching the screen saver on your computer, it is no cause for alarm. But if your baby looks at such moving geometric patterns for long periods but not at fun, social images, you might want to check for other early warning signs of autism.
- Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Autism, or autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is a lifelong, nonprogressive neurological disorder typically appearing before the age of three years. The word "autism" means a developmental disability is significantly affecting verbal and non-verbal communication and social interaction. People with ASD may behave, communicate, interact, and learn in ways that are different from most others. Often, nothing about how they look sets them apart from other people. The classic form of autism involves a triad of impairments; in social interaction, communication, language use, and limited imagination as reflected in restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped behavior patterns and activities.
Using eye-tracking methods, researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have shown that toddlers with autism spend significantly more time visually examining dynamic geometric patterns than looking at social images - a viewing pattern not found in either typical or developmentally delayed toddlers.
The study's results suggest that a preference for geometric patterns early in life may be a signature behavior in at-risk infants for autism. This preference was found in infants at risk for autism as young as 14 months.
"In testing 110 toddlers ages 14 to 42 months, we found that all of the toddlers who spent more than 69 percent of their time fixing their gaze on geometric images could be accurately classified as having an autism spectrum disorder or ASD," said Karen Pierce, Ph.D., an assistant professor in the UCSD Department of Neurosciences and assistant director of the UCSD Autism Center of Excellence.
The study will be published in the September 6 issue of the Archives of General Psychiatry.
During this study, babies ranging in age between 12 and 42 months sat on their mother's lap as they watched a one-minute movie that contained shapes moving on one side of the screen (i.e., dynamic geometric patterns) and children dancing and doing yoga on the other (i.e., dynamic social images).
Using an infrared light beam that bounces off the eye, Pierce and colleagues could measure what the baby liked to look at by measuring the time they examined each side of the screen. Interestingly, the dynamic geometric patterns that absorbed the attention of autistic but not normal babies were nothing more than a common screen saver found on most computers.
Out of 51 typical infants in this study, only one preferred to look at the geometric images. However, not all autistic toddlers prefer geometric shapes. In the UCSD study, 40 percent of the ASD toddlers had this preference, compared to just two percent of the typical and nine percent of the developmentally delayed toddlers. Thus, while 40 percent of the ASD toddlers were "geometric responders," the remaining 60 percent were similar to the typical and developmentally delayed groups in preferring dynamic social images.
"What an infant prefers to look at when given a choice between two images may turn out to be a more clearly observable indicator of autism risk than how he or she looks at a single image," Pierce said. "Among toddlers who strongly prefer geometric patterns, we found that - almost 100 percent of the time - those children developed an autism spectrum disorder."
A preference for geometric patterns alone may be an intriguing novel identifier of early autism. Still, the research results also illustrated a distinct pattern of saccades - rapid, directed eye movements - among the geometric responders.
"We initially predicted that ASD toddlers overall would show a reduced number of saccades," Pierce explained. However, results revealed that only the geometric responders, not the group as a whole, displayed a reduced number of saccades; this pattern was only evident when viewing their preferred geometric patterns. "It was almost as if they got 'stuck' and didn't move their eyes as much as typical toddlers when viewing geometric patterns. The geometric patterns were very absorbing to them."
The researchers concluded that a preference for moving geometric patterns, combined with how long toddlers stare when looking at moving geometric images, might be an early identifier of autism.
"If your baby occasionally enjoys looking at the screen saver on your computer, it is no cause for alarm," said Pierce. "But if your baby looks at such moving geometric patterns for long periods, but not at fun, social images, you might want to check for other early warning signs of autism."
Such warning signs include reduced enjoyment during back-and-forth games like peek-a-boo; the presence of an unusual tone of voice; a lack of pointing at or bringing objects to show; and a failure to respond when their name is called.
"If your baby shows multiple such 'red-flags,' then speak to your pediatrician about a developmental evaluation," Pierce advised.
Additional contributors to the study include D. Conant and J. Desmond, UCSD Autism Center of Excellence; and R. Stoner, UCSD Department of Neurosciences and the Autism Center of Excellence. The research was supported by grant NIMH R01-MH080134 from the National Institute of Mental Health and an Autism Center of Excellence grant P50-MH081755.
Resources That Provide Relevant Information
- Detecting Autism in Children with an Eye Test
- High-Tech Tools to Study Autism Eye Contact
- Relatives of Individuals with Autism Tend to Display Abnormal Eye Movements
- Face to Face with Autism
This peer reviewed publication pertaining to our Autism Information section was selected for circulation by the editors of Disabled World due to its likely interest to our disability community readers. Though the content may have been edited for style, clarity, or length, the article "Visual Pattern Preference May be Sign of Autism in Children" was originally written by University of California - San Diego, and submitted for publishing on 2010/09/06 (Edit Update: 2022/08/22). Should you require further information or clarification, University of California - San Diego can be contacted at the ucsd.edu website. Disabled World makes no warranties or representations in connection therewith.
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Cite This Page (APA): University of California - San Diego. (2010, September 6). Visual Pattern Preference May be Sign of Autism in Children. Disabled World. Retrieved February 26, 2024 from www.disabled-world.com/health/neurology/autism/pattern-preferences.php
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