PEERS Social Skills Help Kids with Autism
Synopsis: Experts who created a social skills program that has shown significant results in a clinical trial offer social tips for those with autism.1
Author: UCLA Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior2 Contact: ucla.edu
Published: 2016-01-14 Updated: 2020-11-20
Our study offers encouraging findings that, through an evidence-based, caregiver-supported intervention, adults with autism can improve in ways that may help them be more successful in these aspects of their lives.
When young people with autism struggle socially when trying to meet a new group of people, they are often advised to go up and introduce themselves - a strategy that Laugeson said can come across as awkward.
The study, the largest randomized controlled trial to show improved social functioning in young adults with autism, appears in a special issue of the online Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders.
"Most young adults on the autism spectrum really want to have friends and even romantic relationships, but they don't know how to do that," said Elizabeth Laugeson, the founder and director of the UCLA PEERS Clinic, an assistant clinical professor of psychiatry at the UCLA Semel Institute and the study's principal investigator. "Most of the treatment and research in autism focuses on children. It's as if we've forgotten that these children grow up to be adults with their own unique challenges that very often affect their ability to become employed and establish meaningful friendships and even romantic relationships.
"Our study offers encouraging findings that, through an evidence-based, caregiver-supported intervention, adults with autism can improve in ways that may help them be more successful in these aspects of their lives. We're not teaching what we think young people should do in social situations, but what we know actually works through research."
Autism affects approximately 1.5 million people in the U.S., and the number of young adults identified with the disorder is rising every year. Although individuals of all ages on the autism spectrum struggle as a result of social deficits, most interventions target young children. Few programs are available to help young adults improve their social functioning and no program other than the PEERS program has been shown in research to be effective.
Elizabeth Laugeson, Psy.D., looks at a copy of her book The Science of Making Friends at UCLA Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior. The book offers tips to young adults with autism and their parents about interacting socially, a skill many struggle with and, as a result, suffer social isolation. Laugeson developed a 16 week course called the Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills (PEERS) that teaches social skills to young adults with autism and teaches their parents how to coach them through difficult situations.
The PEERS for Young Adults intervention consists of 16 weekly 90-minute sessions, along with concurrent sessions for caregivers.
Laugeson and her colleagues, including Dr. Fred Frankel, a UCLA professor of psychiatry, developed PEERS at UCLA in 2005 and it has since expanded to other sites in the U.S. and other countries. To find one in your area: www.semel.ucla.edu/peers/training
Social Tips for Those with Autism
When young people with autism struggle socially when trying to meet a new group of people, they are often advised to go up and introduce themselves - a strategy that Laugeson said can come across as awkward. Instead, follow the tips below when entering a group conversation.
Tips for entering a group conversation:
- Watch and listen (use a prop such as a cell phone so that you do not appear to be eavesdropping)
- Figure out the topic
- Wait for a pause in conversation
- Move in closer
- Say something related to the topic
More tips can be found in Laugeson's book "The Science of Making Friends" and "FriendMaker" app. (semel.ucla.edu/peers)
In the study, 22 people aged 18 to 24 and their caregivers were randomly assigned either to receive the PEERS treatment or to be part of a control group in which treatment was delayed. Those in the PEERS group received training on social etiquette related to conversational skills, humor, electronic communication, identifying sources of friends, entering and exiting conversations, organizing successful get-togethers, and handling peer conflict and peer rejection. The young adults in the PEERS group also received four sessions on dating etiquette.
The PEERS approach teaches skills using concrete rules and steps of social behavior via lessons, role-play demonstrations, behavioral rehearsal exercises and assignments to practice the skills in natural social settings. Caregivers (including parents and other family members, job and life coaches, and peer mentors) are also provided tips to help participants use their skills in the real world.
Among members of the PEERS group, social skills, frequency of social engagement and social skills knowledge improved significantly, and autism symptoms related to social responsiveness diminished.
In addition, 16 weeks after the treatment ended, most of the gains were still evident, and the researchers observed new improvements in social communication, assertion, responsibility and empathy - a result the scientists attributed to the involvement of caregivers as social coaches.
The new study was funded by the Organization for Autism Research and the National Institutes of Health.
Individuals and families who are interested in participating in PEERS may contact the program at email@example.com or 310-26-PEERS.
2Source/Reference: UCLA Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior (ucla.edu). Disabled World makes no warranties or representations in connection therewith. Content may have been edited for style, clarity or length.
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