Confusion: Causes, Symptoms and Information

Author: Thomas C. Weiss
Published: 2013/10/15 - Updated: 2021/08/30
Contents: Summary - Introduction - Main - Related

Synopsis: Information relating to some of the causes and symptoms of confusion and disorientation. Confusion may accompany additional symptoms, ones that can vary depending upon the underlying disorder, disease, or condition. Depending upon the cause, confusion may be temporary and treatable, or it might be progressive.


Confusion is a condition that occurs when a person has difficulty understanding a situation, or experiences unclear or disordered thoughts. It may be accompanied by disorientation, memory loss, or the inability to think quickly. Confusion may increase slowly over a period of time, or it may occur quickly, depending on the cause. It might be associated with some chronic medical conditions, serious infections, brain or spinal cord tumor, a head injury, stroke, delirium, or dementia. Confusion may also be caused by drug or alcohol intoxication, chemical or electrolyte imbalances, sleep disorders, medications, or vitamin deficiencies. It might also happen in the period after a seizure, or due to hypothermia.

Main Digest

Confusion is defined as a pathological degree in which it usually refers to loss of orientation (ability to place oneself correctly in the world by time, location, and/or personal identity) sometimes accompanied by disordered consciousness and often memory (ability to correctly recall previous events or learn new material). Confusion may come on quickly or slowly over time, depending on the cause. Many times, confusion is temporary. Other times it is permanent and not curable. It may be associated with delirium or dementia.

Confusion in seniors might be aggravated by environmental changes, such as being admitted to a hospital, or because of confusion which happens late in the day or at night that can accompany certain forms of dementia referred to as, 'sundowning.' Behavioral changes may accompany confusion. Depending upon the cause, confusion may be temporary and treatable, or it might be progressive.

It is important to seek prompt medical attention for the rapid onset of confusion, particularly if it is accompanied by a high fever of higher than 101 degrees Fahrenheit, a rash, a stiff neck, a head injury, flushing or dry skin, severe, nausea and vomiting, changes in a person's level of consciousness, a fruity odor to the person's breath, or other symptoms that cause concern.

Medications That May Cause Confusion

A number of prescription and non-prescription medications may cause confusion, or make a person less alert. Among these medications are included:

It is important to contact your doctor before you reduce or stop taking the dose of a regular prescription medication unless you believe you are experiencing serious side-effects or an allergic reaction. Stopping some medications suddenly may cause serious withdrawal symptoms in people who have become dependent upon them. Some medications need to be stopped gradually to prevent issues. Examples of medications that may cause issues if you stop them suddenly include clonidine, prednisone, sleeping medications, tranquilizers, and antidepressant medications.

If you have any questions concerning medications and their effects, you should ask your doctor or pharmacist. If you are taking one of the medications described, or recently started taking a new medication and are experiencing difficulties with side-effects, you should call the doctor who prescribed the medication to talk about the symptoms you are experiencing. Your doctor might change the dose you take, or change or discontinue the medication. A visit to the doctor's office might not be required.

Symptoms of Confusion

Confusion may accompany additional symptoms, ones that can vary depending upon the underlying disorder, disease, or condition. Symptoms that frequently affect a person's brain might also involve other systems in their body or disorders. Serious symptoms that may indicate a life-threatening condition and should be evaluated in an emergency setting are presented below. It is important to seek immediate medical care if you, or someone you are with, experience any of the following life-threatening symptoms:

Causes of Confusion

Confusion may be associated with serious infections, head injury, some chronic medical conditions, delirium, brain or spinal cord tumor, stroke, or dementia. It may be caused by sleep disorders, drug or alcohol intoxication, vitamin deficiencies, chemical or electrolyte imbalances, or medications. Confusion may also happen in the period after a seizure - referred to as the, 'postictal period,' or as a result of hypothermia. It may also be caused by:

Delirium is a serious and potentially life-threatening symptom that needs to be evaluated in an emergency setting. Meningitis, sepsis, a heat stroke, and encephalitis are as well. When a person experiences these conditions and confusion, it is important for them to receive emergency medical care.

Author Credentials:

Thomas C. Weiss is a researcher and editor for Disabled World. Thomas attended college and university courses earning a Masters, Bachelors and two Associate degrees, as well as pursing Disability Studies. As a Nursing Assistant Thomas has assisted people from a variety of racial, religious, gender, class, and age groups by providing care for people with all forms of disabilities from Multiple Sclerosis to Parkinson's; para and quadriplegia to Spina Bifida. Explore Thomas' complete biography for comprehensive insights into his background, expertise, and accomplishments.

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Cite This Page (APA): Weiss, T. C. (2013, October 15 - Last revised: 2021, August 30). Confusion: Causes, Symptoms and Information. Disabled World. Retrieved June 24, 2024 from

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