Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: OCD Disorders List & Information
Author: Disabled World : Contact: Disabled World
Published: 2009-07-01 : (Rev. 2015-07-28)
Synopsis and Key Points:
OCD can include depression, eating disorders, substance abuse disorder, personality disorders, attention deficit disorder or anxiety disorders.
Seven million people in the United States suffer from Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD).
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is defined as an anxiety disorder characterized by intrusive thoughts that produce uneasiness, apprehension, fear or worry (obsessions), repetitive behaviors aimed at reducing the associated anxiety (compulsions), or a combination of such obsessions and compulsions. With OCD, you may or may not realize that your obsessions aren't reasonable, and you may try to ignore them or stop them. But that only increases your distress and anxiety. Ultimately, you feel driven to perform compulsive acts in an effort to ease your stressful feelings. OCD symptoms can range from mild to severe. Some people with OCD may spend an hour or so a day engaged in obsessive-compulsive thinking and behavior, but for others the condition can completely take over their life. OCD sometimes runs in families, but no one knows for sure why some people have it while others don't.
OCD is a complex anxiety-based disorder which has two elements to it, obsessions and compulsions. Unfortunately for some, the symptoms experienced do not end there.
"OCD is sometimes accompanied by depression, eating disorders, substance abuse disorder, a personality disorder, attention deficit disorder or another of the anxiety disorders," states the NIMH. "Co-existing disorders can make OCD more difficult both to diagnose and to treat."
What exactly are obsessions and compulsions and how do they affect the sufferer
Obsessions are idea's or thoughts related to, or obsessed with, the excessive need for cleanliness or preventing contamination from some substance or another, which in the mind of the sufferer, at first seems rational. However, those that don't suffer the disease can clearly see the irrationality of their obsessions or fears. The fear that harm may come to themselves or their loved ones can lead them to perform repetitive actions such as ensuring that all the doors and windows in the home are securely shut, or that the iron is safely switched off, and such like. The sufferer is constantly striving for perfection and it is sometimes the fear of imperfection that drives their compulsive behavior.thoughts are intrusive and distressing
Compulsions are tasks or rituals and their actions or behavior mainly center around hand-washing, checking behavior and counting actions performed. Sufferers are powerless to stop their compulsive behavior even though they are consciously aware of the disorder and that it is controlling their behavior. Compulsive symptoms often make it hard to diagnose OCD as compulsions alone are are not an indicator of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. hey are driven by fear that harm will come to them or loved ones if their compulsive behavior does not satisfy their obsessive ideas. Because OCD is a anxiety-based disorder much of their compulsive behavior is acted out in the desperate need to lower their anxiety which is very prevalent in OCD sufferers.
Unfortunately no clear cause that leads to a person developing OCD.
There is however help for those that have OCD. Research points to a class of medication called serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SRIs) and selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) that can help to reduce the symptoms of OCD. Once taken, weaning the person off the medication as relapse often occurs when a patient suddenly stops taking their medication.
Behavior therapy is very effective for treating OCD and works to help reduce the compulsive behavior of the person. It is important to note that just because someone shows traits of perfectionism or fixation does not necessarily indicate a diagnosis of OCD. Symptoms would need to disrupt the daily life of the sufferer such as spending a number of hours each day involved in performing rituals or repetitive actions such as washing of hands.
A high level of anxiety is associated with compulsive rituals.
Compulsions actions or rituals that are performed by the sufferer in an attempt to alleviate the obsessional thoughts of OCD which they often find intrusive or distressing. Often the link between the compulsive actions and the scenario or situation they are intending to prevent, or keep themselves or others safe from, does not make any sense and is not realistic, such as not stepping on cracks in the side-walk for fear of falling through them.
OCD does not affect the individual alone but also creates a large burden on those who live with an OCD sufferer. With the help of a psychiatrist or other mental health professional, OCD can be treated successfully. A treatment plan using drugs as well as behavior therapy is often the most successful route to take.
List of some Obsessive Compulsive Disorders:
- blinking or staring rituals
- bodily waste or secretions
- bothered by sticky substances or residues
- colors/numbers with special significance
- counting objects or up to a certain number over and over again
- dirt or germs
- environmental contaminants
- excessive checking of drawers, door locks and appliances to be sure they are shut, locked or turned off
- excessive checking oneself for signs of a catastrophic disease
- excessive concern with functioning of, or injury, to a body part
- excessive grooming/cleaning
- excessive list making
- excessive rereading or rewriting
- fear of being responsible for terrible events
- fear of blood
- fear of blurting out obscenities or insults
- fear of doing something else embarrassing
- fear of eating certain foods
- fear of harm to self or others due to carelessness or on impulse
- fear of losing objects, information, people, something symbolic
- fear of saying the wrong thing
- fear of violent or horrific images
- Hoarding/Saving Obsessions
- intrusive meaningless thoughts/images or nonsense sounds, words or music.
- item placement
- list making and reviewing
- lucky or unlucky numbers, colors, or clothing
- mental counting
- need to hoard or save things
- need to know or remember
- needing to confess
- ordering and arranging items in certain ways
- pathological doubting or indecisiveness
- repetition of normal activities, such as going in and out of a door, sitting down and getting up from a chair
- repetition of special words or images mentally
- ritualized eating behaviors
- Safety, Harm and Violent Obsessions
- saving, collecting or hoarding
- seeking constant reassurance and approval
- special prayers
- superstitious behaviors
- superstitious fears
- touching, tapping or rubbing certain objects repeatedly.
Famous People with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
- Obsessive compulsive disorder affects children and adolescents, as well as adults.
- OCD is often confused with the separate condition obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD).
- Scholars generally agree that both psychological and biological factors play a role in causing the disorder, although they differ in their degree of emphasis upon either type of factor.
- People with OCD may be diagnosed with other conditions, as well or instead of OCD, such as the aforementioned obsessive compulsive personality disorder, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, anorexia nervosa, social anxiety disorder, bulimia nervosa, Tourette syndrome, Asperger syndrome, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, dermatillomania (compulsive skin picking), body dysmorphic disorder, and trichotillomania (hair pulling).
- Formal diagnosis may be performed by a psychologist, psychiatrist, clinical social worker, or other licensed mental health professional.
- Treatment for OCD involves the use of behavioral therapy and sometimes selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
- Medications as treatment include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and the tricyclic antidepressants, in particular clomipramine.
- OCD occurs in between 1 to 3% of children and adults. It occurs equally in both sexes. In 80% of cases, symptoms present before the age of 18.
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