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Polyneuropathy Information, Treatment and Therapy

Published: 2013-04-02 - Updated: 2021-11-29
Author: Thomas C. Weiss | Contact: Disabled World (Disabled-World.com)

Synopsis: Polyneuropathy is the most common form of a group of disorders referred to as peripheral neuropathy caused by damage to peripheral nerves. Neuropathies of all forms commonly belong to three different categories - acquired, hereditary and idiopathic. Some people with neuropathies might experience issues with muscles involving breathing, swallowing, or movement of their eyes. A fairly serious yet rare form of acquired polyneuropathy is, 'Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS).' GBS is a disease that presents suddenly when a person's immune system attacks their peripheral nerves.

Main Digest

The terms "polyneuropathy," "peripheral neuropathy," and "neuropathy" are frequently used interchangeably, but are distinct. Polyneuropathy is a specific term that refers to a generalized, relatively homogeneous process affecting many peripheral nerves, with the distal nerves usually affected most prominently. Peripheral neuropathy is a less precise term that is frequently used synonymously with polyneuropathy, but can also refer to any disorder of the peripheral nervous system including radiculopathies and mono-neuropathies. Neuropathy, which again is frequently used synonymously with peripheral neuropathy and/or polyneuropathy, can refer even more generally to disorders of the central and peripheral nervous system.

Related:

Polyneuropathy is the most common form of a group of disorders referred to as, 'peripheral neuropathy,' and is caused by damage to a person's peripheral nerves. Peripheral nerves are defined as nerves that are beyond a person's brain and spinal cord. Peripheral nerves travel from a person's spinal cord to their skin, muscles, glands, and internal organs.

With polyneuropathy, a number of nerves throughout a person's body malfunction at the same time. While there are various causes of polyneuropathy, the symptoms people experience remain fairly constant and may include the following:

Some people with neuropathies might experience issues with muscles involving breathing, swallowing, or movement of their eyes. The medical professionals involved in treating people with polyneuropathy may include a multidisciplinary team including neurologists, physical medicine specialists, neurosurgeons, physical and occupational therapists, speech therapists, neuro-psychologists, nutritionists, respiratory therapists, and others who work to ensure a person achieves their best potential outcome.

Causes of Polyneuropathy

Neuropathies of all forms commonly belong to three different categories - acquired, hereditary and, 'idiopathic,' meaning there is no understood cause. One of the more common forms of an acquired neuropathy is, 'diabetic neuropathy,' which is the result of badly controlled blood sugar levels in those who experience diabetes. While less common, diabetes may also cause, 'mono-neuropathy,' which is many times characterized by weakness of a person's eye, or of their thigh muscles. Other causes of acquired neuropathies include:

Hereditary neuropathies are not as commonly experienced by people. Those who do experience a hereditary neuropathy have a specific gene that might be passed along from a parent to a child. The most common of these is, 'Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease,' which may take various forms and is characterized by a slowly progressive degeneration of the muscles in a person's hand and forearm, lower leg, foot, and a mild loss of sensation in their fingers, limbs, and toes.

'Idiopathic,' meaning, 'of unknown cause,' is the classification for around one-third of people who are diagnosed with neuropathies. Commonly, idiopathic neuropathies happen in people who are over the age of sixty and tend to progress slowly, or stay unchanged after the initial onset.

Guillain-Barre Syndrome

A fairly serious yet rare form of acquired polyneuropathy is, 'Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS).' GBS is a disease that presents suddenly when a person's immune system attacks their peripheral nerves. The early symptoms of GBS include tingling, weakness and a loss of sensation in the person's legs that eventually spreads to their arms. In people with critical instances of the syndrome, issues with breathing, blood pressure and heart rhythm might happen. Despite the severity of the syndrome, recovery rates are good when people receive early treatment.

People with GBS benefit from closely collaborating with a neurology team and working with rehabilitation and physical medicine. The coordinated treatments provide people with multiple benefits, to include the potential for one treatment location and advanced medical care.

Treating Polyneuropathy

The treatment goal related to polyneuropathy is to control the symptoms a person experiences, something that at times involves treating the underlying cause if it is known - such as diabetes. When the underlying cause is corrected, neuropathies might improve on their own. The treatment provided also depends upon the severity of the symptoms the person is experiencing. Controlling the pain may be an important part of a person's neuropathy treatment plan. The most aggressive therapy is commonly reserved for symptoms that greatly interfere with a person's daily functioning. Therapies to control pain caused by polyneuropathy might include the following:

When more aggressive treatment is required for progressive types of neuropathy that is causing serious physical dysfunction there are some other options. These options include the following:

Alternative and Wellness Therapies

Certain lifestyle choices and wellness techniques might help people with polyneuropathy to manage their disorder. Some of these choices and techniques are mentioned below.

Author Credentials:

Thomas C. Weiss is a researcher and editor for Disabled World. Thomas attended college and university courses earning a Masters, Bachelors and two Associate degrees, as well as pursing Disability Studies. As a Nursing Assistant Thomas has assisted people from a variety of racial, religious, gender, class, and age groups by providing care for people with all forms of disabilities from Multiple Sclerosis to Parkinson's; para and quadriplegia to Spina Bifida.

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Cite This Page (APA): Thomas C. Weiss. (2013, April 2). Polyneuropathy Information, Treatment and Therapy. Disabled World. Retrieved January 27, 2022 from www.disabled-world.com/health/neurology/polyneuropathy.php