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Oral Health: Mouth, Throat and Neck Medical Conditions

  • Synopsis: Last Revised/Updated: 2016-12-23 - Mouth and throat diseases range from cavities to cancer cause pain and disability for millions of Americans each year.

Mouth and throat diseases, which range from cavities to cancer, cause pain and disability for millions of Americans each year, yet almost all oral diseases are largely preventable.

Oral health: Oral health is multifaceted and includes the ability to speak, smile, smell, taste, touch, chew, swallow, and convey a range of emotions through facial expressions with confidence and without pain, discomfort, and disease of the craniofacial complex.

Oral Hygiene: The practice of keeping the mouth and teeth clean to prevent dental problems, most commonly, dental cavities, gingivitis, periodontal(gum) diseases and bad breath. There are also oral pathologic conditions in which good oral hygiene is required for healing and regeneration of the oral tissues. These conditions include gingivitis, periodontitis, and dental trauma, such as subluxation, oral cysts, and following wisdom tooth extraction.

List of Dental Terms and Definitions

Good oral health does not just mean you have pretty teeth.

Your whole mouth needs care to be in good health. The word "oral" refers to the mouth, which includes your teeth, gums, jawbone, and supporting tissues.

Your oral health is connected to many other health conditions beyond your mouth.

Sometimes the first sign of a disease shows up in your mouth. In other cases, infections in your mouth, such as gum disease, can cause problems in other areas of your body.

When your gums are healthy, bacteria in your mouth usually don't enter your bloodstream. However, gum disease may provide bacteria a port of entry into your bloodstream. Sometimes invasive dental treatments also can allow bacteria to enter your bloodstream. And medications or treatments that reduce saliva flow or disrupt the normal balance of bacteria in your mouth also may lead to oral changes, making it easier for bacteria to enter your bloodstream.

Taking good care of your oral health can prevent disease in your mouth.

Oral health can also affect the health of your body. It is easy to take your oral health for granted. But good oral health is key to your overall health.

Many diseases, such as diabetes, HIV, cancer, and some eating disorders, can cause oral health problems. For instance, people with diabetes can develop tooth and gum problems if their blood sugar stays high. Regular dental exams help you maintain good oral health and avoid related health problems.

Types of Oral Health Conditions

Thrush (oral candidiasis)

These fungal infections appear as red or white lesions, flat or slightly raised, in the mouth or throat. They can be caused by overgrowth of the fungus Candida. This fungus lives naturally in your mouth.

Canker sores

These sores are small ulcers inside the mouth. They have a white or gray base and a red border. Women are more likely than men to have canker sores that recur.

Dry mouth (xerostomia)

This problem happens when you don't have enough saliva in your mouth.

Bad breath (halitosis)

Bad-smelling breath can be caused by a number of different things.

Oral cancer

This cancer can affect any part of the mouth. If you smoke or chew tobacco, you are at higher risk. Alcohol use along with smoking raises your risk even more. Yet more than 25 percent of oral cancer affects nonsmokers.


Diabetes increases your risk of gum disease, cavities, tooth loss, dry mouth and a variety of oral infections.

Pregnancy and birth

Gum disease has been linked to premature birth. This is why it's vital to maintain excellent oral health before you get pregnant and during your pregnancy.

Cardiovascular disease

Research shows that several types of cardiovascular disease may be linked to oral health. These include heart disease, clogged arteries and stroke.


The first stages of bone loss may show up in your teeth. Systemic loss of bone density in osteoporosis, including bone in the jaw, may create a condition where the bone supporting your teeth is increasingly susceptible to infectious destruction.

Other oral health conditions

Many other conditions may make their presence known in your mouth before you know anything's wrong. These may include Sjogren's syndrome, certain cancers, eating disorders, syphilis, gonorrhea and substance abuse. Cold sores and canker sores are two other common forms of oral health conditions.

Oral Hygiene Awareness Information

February is National Children's Dental Health Month, and October is National Dental Hygiene Month (NDHM). The month of April is Oral Cancer Awareness Month

Quick Facts: Oral Health

It's important to take care of your mouth and teeth starting in childhood. If you don't, you could have problems with your teeth and gums, like cavities or even tooth loss.

How to keep your mouth and teeth healthy:

Between dental visits, it is important to be aware of the following signs and symptoms, and see a dental professional if they do not improve after 2 to 3 weeks:

Chewing gum assists oral irrigation between and around the teeth, cleaning and removing particles, but for teeth in poor condition it may damage or remove loose fillings as well. Chewing sugar free chewing gum that contains xylitol may be good for teeth. Dental chewing gums claim to improve dental health. Sugar-free chewing gum stimulates saliva production, and helps to clean the surface of the teeth.

Statistics: Oral Health



Latest Oral Health Publications

1 : Oral Thrush: Symptoms, Causes and Treatments : Thomas C. Weiss.

2 : Orthodontic Care for Patients with Disability : American Association of Orthodontists (AAO).

3 : Improving Oral Health of Adults with Developmental Disabilities and Support for Caregivers : Tufts University, Boston Health Sciences Campus.

4 : Tonsillectomy Surgery Procedures and Information : Thomas C. Weiss.

5 : Dental Checkups - Reasons Not to Skip Oral Exams : Pennsylvania Dental Association.

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