Immunization and Vaccines: Types, Statistics, Information
Updated/Revised Date: 2022-04-13
Synopsis: Provides general information and updates regarding vaccines and immunization types and schedules for children and adults. Immunization can be done through various techniques, most commonly vaccination. Vaccines against microorganisms that cause diseases can prepare the body's immune system, thus helping to fight or prevent an infection. Serious reactions to vaccines are extremely rare. The risks of serious disease from not vaccinating are far greater than the risks of serious reaction to a vaccination.
Immunization, or immunization, is the process by which an individual's immune system becomes fortified against an agent (known as the immunogen). Immunization shots, or vaccinations, are essential. They protect against things like measles, mumps, rubella, hepatitis B, polio, diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (whooping cough). Immunizations are important for adults as well as for children.
Children need immunizations to protect them from dangerous childhood diseases. These diseases can have serious complications and even kill children. Children under 5 are especially susceptible to disease because their immune systems have not built up the necessary defenses to fight infection. By immunizing on time (by age 2), you can protect your child from disease and also protect others at school or daycare.
Immunization can be done through various techniques, most commonly vaccination. Vaccines against microorganisms that cause diseases can prepare the body's immune system, thus helping to fight or prevent an infection. The fact that mutations can cause cancer cells to produce proteins or other molecules that are unknown to the body forms the theoretical basis for therapeutic cancer vaccines. Other molecules can be used for immunization as well, for example in experimental vaccines against nicotine (NicVAX) or the hormone ghrelin (in experiments to create an obesity vaccine).
Clipart image of a nurse administering a vaccine shot to a young boy.
Passive and Active Immunization
Vaccination is an active form of immunization.
- Active immunization: Active immunization entails the introduction of a foreign molecule into the body, which causes the body itself to generate immunity against the target. This immunity comes from the T cells and the B cells with their antibodies.
- Passive immunization: Passive immunization is where pre-synthesized elements of the immune system are transferred to a person so that the body does not need to produce these elements itself. Currently, antibodies can be used for passive immunization. This method of immunization begins to work rapidly, but it is short lasting because the antibodies are naturally broken down, and if there are no B cells to produce more antibodies, they will disappear.
U.S. Student and Schools Immunization Laws:
All fifty states have legislation requiring specified vaccines for students. Although exemptions vary from state to state, all school immunization laws grant exemptions to children for medical reasons. Almost all states, except Mississippi and West Virginia, grant religious exemptions for people who have religious beliefs against immunizations. Twenty states allow philosophical exemptions for those who object to immunizations because of a personal, moral or other beliefs.
In the U.S. The Immunization Action Coalition (IAC) works to increase immunization rates and prevent disease by creating and distributing educational materials for health professionals and the public that enhance the delivery of safe and effective immunization services. IAC also facilitates communication about the safety, efficacy, and use of vaccines within the broad immunization community of patients, parents, healthcare organizations, and government health agencies.
Serious reactions to vaccines are extremely rare. The risks of serious disease from not vaccinating are far greater than the risks of serious reaction to a vaccination. Diseases for which vaccines are available include:
- Haemophilus influenzae type b
- Hepatitis A
- Hepatitis B
- Hepatitis E
- Human papillomavirus
- Japanese encephalitis
- Meningococcal disease
- Pneumoccocal disease
- Rotavirus gastenteritis
- Tick-born encephalitis
- Typhoid fever
- Varicella and herpes zoster (shingles)
- Yellow fever
Immunization Facts and Statistics
- In 2012, the World Health Organization estimated that vaccination prevents 2.5 million deaths each year.
- Before the introduction of vaccines, the only way people became immune to an infectious disease was by actually getting the disease and surviving it.
- Immunizations are definitely less risky and an easier way to become immune to a particular disease than risking a milder form of the disease itself.
- Four diseases are responsible for 98% of vaccine-preventable deaths: measles, Haemophilus influenzae serotype b, pertussis, and neonatal tetanus.
- A vaccine-preventable disease is an infectious disease for which an effective preventive vaccine exists. If a person acquires a vaccine-preventable disease and dies from it, the death is considered a vaccine-preventable death.
Post This on: Twitter and Facebook
Subtopics and Associated Subjects
Disabled World is an independent disability community founded in 2004 to provide disability news and information to people with disabilities, seniors, their family and/or carers. See our homepage for informative reviews, exclusive stories and how-tos. You can connect with us on social media such as Twitter and Facebook or learn more about Disabled World on our about us page.
Disabled World provides general information only. The materials presented are never meant to substitute for professional medical care by a qualified practitioner, nor should they be construed as such. Financial support is derived from advertisements or referral programs, where indicated. Any 3rd party offering or advertising does not constitute an endorsement.
Cite This Page (APA): Disabled World. (2022, April 13). Immunization and Vaccines: Types, Statistics, Information. Disabled World. Retrieved June 30, 2022 from www.disabled-world.com/medical/immunization/
• Permalink: <a href="https://www.disabled-world.com/medical/immunization/">Immunization and Vaccines</a>