Benzodiazepines, sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring. Benzodiazepines may be prescribed for short-term and long-term relief of severe and disabling anxiety. Common name Benzodiazepines include Valium and Xanax. Benzodiazepines are some of the most commonly prescribed medications in the U.S. They may also be indicated to cover latent periods associated with the medications prescribed to treat an underlying anxiety disorder, in fact, Benzodiazepines are used to treat a wide variety of conditions and symptoms.
Benzodiazepines possess sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant, and amnesic actions, which are useful in a variety of indications such as alcohol dependence, seizures, anxiety disorders, panic, agitation, and insomnia. Most are administered orally; however, they can also be given intravenously, intramuscularly, or rectally. Benzodiazepines exert their anxiolytic properties at moderate dosage. At higher dosage hypnotic properties occur.
Benzodiazepines are prescribed by doctors and are legal when used as prescribed. It is illegal to use benzodiazepines without a prescription, or to give or sell them to other people. When people without prescriptions obtain and take these drugs for their sedating effects, use turns into abuse.
Short-term use of Benzodiazepine medications is generally safe and effective. However, long-term use is still controversial because of the potential for tolerance, dependence, and other adverse side effects. Mixing alcohol with benzodiazepines can be fatal. It is not safe to drink alcohol or take other drugs that have similar effects on the central nervous system (CNS) at the same time because these drugs or substances interact with oral benzodiazepines by causing additional depression of the brain and respiratory depression. Respiratory depression can lead to breathing that's inadequate for supplying oxygen to the body. This can result in death.
Two major therapeutic groups of muscle relaxant are:
While both neuromuscular blockers and spasmolytics are often grouped together as muscle relaxants, the term is commonly used to refer to spasmolytics only.
|Alprazolam||Alprox, Frontin, Helex, Ksalol, Misar, Neurol, Onax, Restyl, Solanax, Tafil, Trankimazin, Xanax, Xanor||Anxiolytic, Antidepressant|
|Bromazepam||Bromam, Lectopam, Lexatin, Lexaurin, Lexotan, Lexotanil||Anxiolytic, Hypnotic|
|Brotizolam||Dormex, Lendormin, Noctilan, Sintonal||Hypnotic|
|Camazepam||Albego, Limpidon, Paxor||Anxiolytic|
|Chlordiazepoxide||Elenium, Librium, Risolid||Anxiolytic|
|Clobazam||Onfi, Frisium, Urbanol||Anticonvulsant, Anxiolytic|
|Clonazepam||Rivatril, Rivotril, Klonopin, Iktorivil, Paxam||Anticonvulsant, Anxiolytic, Muscle relaxant|
|Clonazolam||Anticonvulsant, Anxiolytic, Hypnotic, Muscle relaxant|
|Clorazepate||Tranxene, Tranxilium||Anticonvulsant, Anxiolytic|
|Clotiazepam||Veratran, Clozan, Rize||Anxiolytic|
|Cloxazolam||Sepazon, Olcadil||Anticonvulsant, Anxiolytic|
|Diazepam||Antenex, Apaurin, Apozepam, Apzepam, Diazepan, Hexalid, Normabel, Pax, Stedon, Stesolid, Valaxona, Valium, Vival||Amnesic, Anticonvulsant, Anxiolytic, Muscle relaxant|
|Diclazepam||Amnesic, Anticonvulsant, Anxiolytic, Hypnotic, Muscle relaxant|
|Estazolam||Nuctalon, ProSom||Anxiolytic, Hypnotic|
|Etizolam||Depas, Etilaam, Etizest, Pasaden||Amnesic, Anticonvulsant, Anxiolytic, Hypnotic, Muscle relaxant|
|Ethyl loflazepate||Meilax, Ronlax, Victan||Anxiolytic|
|Flubromazepam||Amnesic, Anticonvulsant, Anxiolytic, Hypnotic, Muscle relaxant|
|Flunitrazepam||Flunipam, Fluscand, Hipnosedon, Hypnodorm, Rohydorm, Rohypnol, Ronal, Vulbegal||Hypnotic|
|Flurazepam||Dalmadorm, Dalmane, Fluzepam||Hypnotic|
|Lorazepam||Ativan, Lorabenz, Lorenin, Lorsilan, Orfidal, Tavor, Temesta||Amnesic, Anticonvulsant, Anxiolytic, Hypnotic, Muscle relaxant|
|Lormetazepam||Loramet, Noctamid, Pronoctan||Hypnotic|
|Medazepam||Ansilan, Mezapam, Nobrium, Raporan, Rudotel||Anxiolytic|
|Metizolam||Amnesic, Anticonvulsant, Anxiolytic, Hypnotic, Muscle relaxant|
|Midazolam||Dormicum, Dormonid, Hypnovel, Versed||Amnesic, Anticonvulsant, Hypnotic|
|Nitrazepam||Alodorm, Dumolid, Mogadon, Nitrazadon, Pacisyn||Anticonvulsant, Hypnotic|
|Oxazepam||Alepam, Medopam, Murelax, Noripam, Opamox, Ox-Pam, Oxabenz, Oxapax, Oxascand, Purata, Serax, Serenid, Serepax, Seresta, Sobril||Anxiolytic|
|Temazepam||Euhypnos, Normison, Restoril, Temaze, Tenox||Anxiolytic, Hypnotic, Muscle relaxant|
The National Institute on Drug Abuse defines designer drugs as drugs "manufactured to chemically resemble illicit drugs but can often be purchased legally because manufacturers continually modify their chemical structures in order to circumvent drug laws." Only a handful of the 100's of designer drugs are classified as a benzodiazepine, they include:
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