Medical Marijuana: Disability and Health Uses
Updated/Revised Date: 2022-04-13
Author: Disabled World | Contact: Disabled World (Disabled-World.com)
Additional References: Medical Marijuana and Cannabis Publications
Synopsis: Information including legal use of marijuana and cannabis by humans for recreation use and medical use for pain, psychological, and medicinal purposes. Medical Cannabis, also known as Medical marijuana, refers to the use of cannabis and its constituent cannabinoids, such as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), as medical therapy to treat disease or alleviate symptoms most notably as an antiemetic - a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea. Recent studies have shown the drug to be efficacious in treating mood disorders and mental health issues such as depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, clinical depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, and bipolar disorder.
What is Medical Cannabis?
Medical Cannabis, also known as Medical marijuana, refers to the use of cannabis and its constituent cannabinoids, such as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), as medical therapy to treat disease or alleviate symptoms most notably as an antiemetic - a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea.
In the 1970s, a synthetic version of THC, the primary active ingredient in cannabis, was synthesized to make the pharmaceutical product drug, Marinol. Marinol is widely available through prescription. It comes in the form of a pill and is also being studied by researchers for suitability via other delivery methods, such as an inhaler or patch. The active ingredient of Marinol is synthetic THC, which has been found to relieve the nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy for cancer patients and to assist with loss of appetite with AIDS patients.
Marijuana is one of the most beneficial and therapeutically active substances known to man. The cannabis plant has been used for medicinal purposes for approximately 4,000 years. Writings from ancient India confirm that its psychoactive properties were recognized, and doctors used it for a variety of illnesses and ailments. These included a whole host of gastrointestinal disorders, insomnia, headaches and as a pain reliever frequently used in childbirth. Its usage in modern times is controversial.
List of Medical Marijuana and Cannabis Laws in Various Countries
Few herbs can offer a wide variety of therapeutic applications like these:
- Relief of muscle spasms
- Relief of chronic pain
- Reduction in interlobular pressure inside the eye
- Suppression of nausea
- Weight loss - increase and restore metabolism
Other Uses Include:
- AIDS - Marijuana can reduce the nausea, loss of appetite, vomiting from the condition itself and the medications as well.
- Glaucoma - Marijuana relieves the internal eye pressure of glaucoma, and therefore relieving the pain and slowing or even stopping the condition.
- Cancer - Many side effects of the medication to stop cancer can be relieved with Marijuana, some studies suggest that Marijuana tends to slow down the progress of some types of cancer.
- Multiple Sclerosis - Muscle pain, spasticity, tremors, and unsteadiness are some effects caused by the disease that can be relieved by Marijuana.
- Epilepsy - in some patients, epileptic seizures can be prevented with Marijuana use.
- Chronic pain - Marijuana helps to alleviate the pain caused from many types of injuries and disorders.
- Anxiety, Depression or Obsession - Even though mild anxiety is a common side effect in some users, cannabis can elevate your mood and expand the mind
"With the expansiveness that occurs with marijuana, the subject may begin to notice infinite possibilities to raise the quality of his/her life that would otherwise have remained hidden from normal, defensive consciousness. And feelings of health and happiness naturally lead to hope, which of itself can be curative." - Joan Bello
Recent studies have shown the drug to be efficacious in treating mood disorders and mental health issues such as depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, clinical depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, and bipolar disorder. As a bronchodilator, it is beneficial for asthma patients. It can also reduce intraocular pressure and is indicated for glaucoma. In addition, it is also indicated for premenstrual syndrome, hypertension, and insomnia, and is also reported to be an effective treatment for constipation and alcohol hangovers.
Cannabis also acts as an antispasmodic and anticonvulsant and is indicated for neurological conditions such as epilepsy especially complex partial seizures, multiple sclerosis, and spasms. As an analgesic and an immunomodulator, it is indicated for conditions such as migraine, arthritis, spinal and skeletal disorders.
Medical marijuana can also benefit you psychologically and spiritually. Many obsessions or quick fixes to psychological problems can be elevated by Marijuana as well. Many people eat because they're depressed. If the depression is treated, the obsession to eat should be gone as well. Any of these physiological conditions can be treated by a psychiatrist; marijuana should be an alternative therapy, used with psychiatric therapy.
Marijuana can be used to enhance personal Spirituality. The herb tends to reveal your true self. It uncovers inner confusion and reveals your true direction - if you let it. Marijuana offers an effect that is both energizing and relaxing at the same time. This balanced effect will help some to think more clearly and more efficiently afterwards.
"Marijuana will not tolerate repression. Tranquilizers and depressants relax the body and release tension, but the state of mind associated with these drugs is "unconsciousness" whereby we escape rather than resolve our dilemmas. Alcoholism is an extreme need of both the body and personality, sometimes to release the nervousness that has accumulated and continues to build up to an unbearable degree. It serves the same function for the collective personality for the society, as well A culture in which alcohol and tranquilizers are the prevalent form of release prefers not to witness internal confusion and actually choose to act without conscious participation, maintaining a semi-numb condition." - Joan Bello
"Marijuana can act as the loosening agent, so that whatever has been banned from consciousness may come cascading forth. To uncover our deceptions without our usual rationalizations can be unpleasant, an experience that has turned many psychologically fragile individuals away from marijuana despite its therapeutic catharsis." - Joan Bello.
There have been testimonies from opiate users that report an easing of addiction cravings. Some cannabinoids in cannabis are believed to have similar effects as Ibogaine, a medication used to treat heroin addiction. The cannabinoids in Marijuana mimic the healing effects of a naturally occurring chemical in the brain called Anandimide. However, this naturally occurring cannabinoid also produces the negative effects that one would experience from high concentrations of cannabinoids in marijuana.
Country Medical Marijuana and Cannabis Laws
|Antigua and Barbuda||Decriminalized||Illegal|
|Australia||Decriminalized in Northern Territory and South Australia. Legal in Australian Capital Territory for personal use but not for sale.||Legal at federal level and in all states. Qualifying conditions and other details vary by state.|
|Austria||Possession for personal use decriminalized January 2016.||Dronabinol, Sativex, Nabilone|
|Bangladesh||Illegal but often unenforced||Illegal|
|Barbados||Legal for spiritual use by registered Rastafarians||Legal|
|Belgium||Decriminalized up to 3g or cultivation of one plant||Sativex|
|Belize||Decriminalized up to 10g||Illegal|
|Bermuda||Decriminalized up to 7g||Legal|
|Bolivia||Decriminalized up to 50g||Illegal|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Illegal||Illegal|
|Brazil||Illegal||Legal for terminally ill patients or those who have exhausted other treatment options.|
|Cambodia||Illegal - often unenforced||Illegal|
|Central African Republic||Illegal||Illegal|
|Chile||Decriminalized for possession and cultivation||Legal|
|People's Republic of China (PRC)||Illegal||Illegal|
|Colombia||Decriminalized up to 22g or cultivation of 20 plants for personal use||Legal|
|Democratic Republic of the Congo||Illegal||Illegal|
|Republic of the Congo||Illegal||Illegal|
|Czech Republic||Decriminalized up to 10g or cultivation of 5 plants||Legal|
|Dominica||Decriminalized up to 1oz (37.8 g)||Illegal|
|Ecuador||Decriminalized up to 10g||Legal|
|Egypt||Illegal but often unenforced||Illegal|
|Estonia||Decriminalized||With a special permit|
|Finland||Illegal - sometimes not enforced||Legal under license.|
|France||Illegal, On-the-spot fine are usually issued in place of prosecution||Trial program underway|
|Georgia||Legal for possession and consumption, but not for sale.||Use is legal, but no system for the dispensing of cannabis exists.|
|Germany||Illegal, but prosecution may be refrained if possession is in small quantities and for personal use.||Legal for seriously ill patients who have consulted a doctor and have absolutely no therapeutic alternative.|
|Ghana||Illegal||Legal only for THC less than 0.3%|
|Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat)||Illegal||Illegal|
|India||Illegal, but exception is made for the use of bhang.||CBD oil legal, less than 0.3% THC|
|Iran||Illegal, but not strictly enforced||Illegal|
|Ireland||Illegal||Legal as part of 5-year pilot program enacted in June 2019|
|Italy||Possession decriminalized; home cultivation legal in small amounts for personal use.||Legal|
|Jamaica||Decriminalized up to 2oz (75.6 g) or cultivation of 5 plants. Legal for Rastafari.||Legal|
|Korea, North (DPRK)||Unknown||Unknown|
|Korea, South||Illegal||Access limited to Epidiolex, Marinol and Sativex as of now due to the policy implemented by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety|
|Laos||Illegal but often unenforced||Illegal|
|Lesotho||Illegal but tolerated||Illegal|
|Macau, SAR of China||Illegal||Illegal|
|Malta||Legal for possession, consumption, and cultivation. Distribution is allowed through non-profit cannabis clubs.||Legal|
|Mexico||Legal for possession, consumption, and cultivation with a permit, but not for sale.||Use is legal, but no system for the dispensing of cannabis exists.|
|Morocco||Illegal - often unenforced||Legal|
|Myanmar||Illegal - often unenforced||Illegal|
|Nepal||Illegal - allowed during Maha Shivaratri||Illegal|
|Netherlands||Consumption and sale are tolerated in licensed coffee shops. Possession of up to 5g is decriminalized. Cultivation of up to 5 plants is unenforced for non-commercial use (unless grown in a professional setup).||Legal|
|Pakistan||Illegal - often unenforced (particularly in some tribal regions)||CBD only|
|Papua New Guinea||Illegal||Illegal|
|Paraguay||Decriminalized up to 10g||Illegal|
|Philippines||Illegal||Illegal but may be allowed with special permit|
|Poland||Illegal, but may not be enforced for small amounts, legal below 0.2% THC||Legal|
|Portugal||Decriminalized up to 25g of herb or 5g of hashish||Legal|
|Romania||Illegal||Cannabis-derived drugs less than 0.2% THC can be prescribed|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||Decriminalized up to 15g||Illegal|
|Saint Lucia||Decriminalized up to 30g||Illegal|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||Decriminalized up to 2oz (75.6 g)||Legal|
|São Tomé and Príncipe||Illegal||Illegal|
|Slovenia||Decriminalized||Sativex, Marinol, CBD|
|South Africa||Legal for possession, cultivation, and use in private places, but not for sale.||Use is legal, but no system for the dispensing of medicinal cannabis exists.|
|Spain||Decriminalized. Use and possession in private areas allowed for own consumption. Public possession or consumption can result in a fine. Cultivation for personal use allowed in private areas, including Cannabis Social Clubs.||Sativex|
|Sri Lanka||Illegal||Legalized by amendment made in colonial law by 1980s and through the Ayurveda Act.|
|Sweden||Illegal||Legal under limited circumstances for patients who obtain a license.|
|Switzerland||Decriminalized. Legal below 1.0% THC.||Legal|
|Thailand||Illegal but often unenforced||Legal|
|Trinidad and Tobago||Decriminalized up to 30g, cultivation of 4 plants per adult||Illegal|
|Ukraine||Illegal||Limited to Dronabinol and Nabiximols|
|United Arab Emirates||Illegal||Illegal|
|United Kingdom||Illegal, but a cannabis warning or an on-the-spot fine ("Penalty Notice for Disorder") may be issued for simple possession instead of prosecution.||Cannabis-derived medicines are legal only when prescribed by a specialist consultant.|
|United States||Legalized in 18 states, 2 territories, and the District of Columbia - but illegal at federal level. Decriminalized in another 13 states and 1 territory.||Legalized in 37 states, 4 territories, and the District of Columbia - but illegal at federal level.
|Uruguay||Legal, but buying prohibited for foreigners. Cultivation allowed up to six plants.||Legal for all uses.|
Subtopics and Associated Subjects
|Latest Medical Marijuana and Cannabis Publications|
|Legal Cannabis Set to Grow Scientific Research and Development|
What legal Cannabis in Canada means for Science showcases research demonstrating how industry developments are expected to promote growth over 50%.
Publish Date: 2020-06-14 - Updated: 2020-10-14
|U.S. Medical Cannabis Protections Extended to 46 States|
Medical cannabis patients and businesses are protected from federal intervention after President Trump signed the new spending bill into law.
Publish Date: 2018-03-27 - Updated: 2019-04-02
|Medical Cannabis Significantly Safer than Opioids for Seniors with Chronic Pain|
Research shows medical cannabis therapy can significantly reduce chronic pain in patients age 65 and older without adverse effects.
Publish Date: 2018-02-13
|Medical Marijuana for Pain Treatment in Elderly Patients|
Cannabis has gained popularity as an alternative to opiates for the treatment of pain in seniors.
Publish Date: 2016-09-21 - Updated: 2019-03-31
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