Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an irregular heartbeat that can lead to stroke and other heart-related complications. The most common cardiac arrhythmia, (heart rhythm disorder), may cause no symptoms, but it is often associated with palpitations, fainting, chest pain, or congestive heart failure. In some cases, however, AF is caused by idiopathic or benign conditions. An arrhythmia is a problem with the rate or rhythm of the heartbeat. During an arrhythmia, the heart can beat too fast, too slow, or with an irregular rhythm. AF may be identified clinically when taking a pulse, and its presence can be confirmed with an electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) that demonstrates the absence of P waves and an irregular ventricular rate.
Researchers, analyzing data from almost 4 million hospitalizations for atrial fibrillation in 2001-10, found:
"Atrial fibrillation is a disease in itself, but it also serves as a marker for the severity of other illnesses," said Nileshkumar Patel, M.D., lead author and internal medicine physician at Staten Island University Hospital, New York.
The hike in hospitalizations is probably because we're living longer and accompanying risk factors such as high blood pressure, obesity, sleep apnea and diabetes are increasing, he said. Generally, the more secondary conditions people had, the longer their hospital stay and the higher their cost.
Researchers analyzed results from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, the largest in-patient hospital database in the United States. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality collected the information from more than 1,200 hospitals across 45 states. The records yielded a cross-section of 3.96 million hospitalizations where atrial fibrillation was the primary diagnosis at discharge.
At least 2.7 million people were living with AF in the United States in 2010, according to the American Heart Association. Seniors over 65 are the fastest growing age group in the United States, which suggests atrial fibrillation will become a major burden on hospitals.
"We must treat atrial fibrillation and its risk factors better in the outpatient setting to prevent hospitalizations and reduce its staggering impact," said Abhishek Deshmukh, M.D., a study author and a cardiologist at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences in Little Rock.
Sadip Pant, M.D.; Vikas Singh, M.D.; Nilay Patel, M.D.; Shilpkumar Arora, M.D.; Neeraj Shah, M.D.; Ankit Chothani, M.D.; Ghanshyambhai Savani, M.D.; Kathan Mehta, M.D.; Valay Parikh, M.D.; Ankit Rathod, M.D.; Apurva Badheka, M.D.; James Lafferty, M.D.; Marcin Kowalski, M.D.; Jawahar Mehta, M.D.; Raul Mitrani, M.D.; Juan Viles-Gonzalez, M.D.; and Hakan Paydak, M.D. Author disclosures are on the manuscript.
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