Your brain continues to develop across a lifespan, it has the capacity for nerve regeneration and pathway rewiring, and it has the ability to grow new tissue. In fact, your clever brain produces nearly 10,000 new cells every day! Use them, and you can strengthen your brain just like a muscle - enhancing memory and cognitive ability, regardless of age. Don't use them, and they soon die.
Neuroplasticity is the Magic Word
In the 1967 Mike Nichols film, The Graduate, Dustin Hoffman plays Ben Braddock, a recent college graduate who gets one word from a family friend: "Plastics." At the time, it was an exploding field with great potential. If the film had been produced today, the word would likely be "neuroplasticity."
Neuroplasticity refers to the brain's lifelong ability to rewire itself in response to the stimulation of learning and experience. Neuroplasticity allows the neurons in the brain to compensate for injury and disease and adjust its response to new situations and changes in its environment. This dispels the myth that the adult brain is a relatively stagnant and fragile organ. It's a muscle, just like any other muscle in the body. Like other muscles, you have to work it.
The Brain's Super Highway
Our brains have 100,000 miles of neural pathways. Every time we move, learn something new, recall a fact or do any of the magnificent things our brains are capable of, messages travel along these pathways at hyper-speeds of up to nearly 300 miles per hour. Just like training a muscle, we can train our brains. Once it learns a new pathway, reinforcement makes that pathway stronger and faster.
What happens if something wipes out that pathway - say injury or stroke. In many cases, the brain will find a route around the damaged area of the brain. That's neuroplasticity at it's best - rewiring in response to the environment and behavior.
A long-term study in Minnesota tracked the lifestyles and mental decline in a group of nuns. When they died, autopsies revealed some had Alzheimer's brains - tangles of neurons, and the plaque of beta amyloid material surrounding these neurons. Yet, these nuns experienced no signs of Alzheimer's. The investigators concluded that a lifestyle of regular physical and mental activity protected these nuns from the onset of the symptoms of dementia, even when the disease was anatomically present. What that tells is that cognitive stimulation improves memory and brain health and minimizes the progression of dementia.
Ready to flex your brain muscles? Here are five brain-healthy tips to get you started: