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Wisdom Teeth Stem Cells Could Treat Corneal Scarring

  • Published: 2015-02-23 : Author: University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health Sciences : Contact: Anita Srikameswaran - SrikamAV@upmc.edu
  • Synopsis: Stem cells from dental pulp of wisdom teeth could be used to repair corneal scarring due to infection or injury.
Wisdom Tooth

A wisdom tooth or third molar is one of the three molars per quadrant of the human dentition. It is the most posterior (most distal) of the three. Wisdom teeth generally appear between the ages of 17 and 25. Most adults have four wisdom teeth (a third molar in each of the four quadrants), but it is possible to have fewer or more, in which case the extras are called supernumerary teeth. Wisdom teeth commonly affect other teeth as they develop, becoming impacted or "coming in sideways." They are often extracted when this occurs.

Main Document

"Shortages of donor corneas and rejection of donor tissue do occur, which can result in permanent vision loss."

Stem cells from the dental pulp of wisdom teeth can be coaxed to turn into cells of the eye's cornea and could one day be used to repair corneal scarring due to infection or injury, according to researchers at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. The findings, published online today in STEM CELLS Translational Medicine, indicate they also could become a new source of corneal transplant tissue made from the patient's own cells.

Corneal blindness, which affects millions of people worldwide, is typically treated with transplants of donor corneas, said senior investigator James Funderburgh, Ph.D., professor of ophthalmology at Pitt and associate director of the Louis J. Fox Center for Vision Restoration of UPMC and the University of Pittsburgh, a joint program of UPMC Eye Center and the McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine.

"Shortages of donor corneas and rejection of donor tissue do occur, which can result in permanent vision loss," Dr. Funderburgh said. "Our work is promising because using the patient's own cells for treatment could help us avoid these problems."

Experiments conducted by lead author Fatima Syed-Picard, Ph.D., also of Pitt's Department of Ophthalmology, and the team showed that stem cells of the dental pulp, obtained from routine human third molar, or wisdom tooth, extractions performed at Pitt's School of Dental Medicine, could be turned into corneal stromal cells called keratocytes, which have the same embryonic origin.

The team injected the engineered keratocytes into the corneas of healthy mice, where they integrated without signs of rejection. They also used the cells to develop constructs of corneal stroma akin to natural tissue.

"Other research has shown that dental pulp stem cells can be used to make neural, bone and other cells," Dr. Syed-Picard noted. "They have great potential for use in regenerative therapies."

In future work, the researchers will assess whether the technique can correct corneal scarring in an animal model.

Co-authors include Yiqin Du, M.D., Ph.D., Kira L. Lathrop, M.A.M.S., Mary M. Mann, M.S., and Martha L. Funderburgh, M.S.P.H., all of the University of Pittsburgh. The project was funded National Institutes of Health grants EY016415, EY009368 and EY008098; Research to Prevent Blindness; and the Eye and Ear Foundation of Pittsburgh.

Facts: Stem Cell

There are three main types of stem cells: adult stem cells, embryonic stem cells and induced-pluripotent stem cells, or iPSCs.

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