Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment
Published: 2009-04-01 - Updated: 2022-08-28
Author: Disabled World | Contact: Disabled World (Disabled-World.com)
Peer-Reviewed Publication: N/A
Additional References: Leukemia Publications
Synopsis: Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia or CML is classified by phase chronic accelerated and blast phases. Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) alternate names: Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (Blast phase), CML (Blast phase), Chronic Granulocytic Leukemia (Blast phase). Chronic myelogenous leukemia (also called CML or chronic granulocytic leukemia) is a slowly progressing blood and bone marrow disease that usually occurs during or after middle age and rarely occurs in children.
- Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), also known as chronic myeloid leukemia, is a cancer of the white blood cells. It is a form of leukemia characterized by the increased and unregulated growth of myeloid cells in the bone marrow and the accumulation of these cells in the blood. CML is a clonal bone marrow stem cell disorder in which a proliferation of mature granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils) and their precursors is found. It is a type of myeloproliferative neoplasm associated with a characteristic chromosomal translocation called the Philadelphia chromosome.
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) is classified by phases: chronic, accelerated, and blast phase. The accelerated and blast phases of CML refer to those phases of the disease when increased immature white blood cells (blasts) are made and do not mature. When this happens, the disease behaves similarly to acute leukemia.
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) alternate names: Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (Blast phase), CML (Blast phase), Chronic Granulocytic Leukemia (Blast phase).
The U.S. Social Security Administration (SSA) has included Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) - Blast Phase in its Compassionate Allowance Program, which expedites certain disability conditions claims.
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (also called CML or chronic granulocytic leukemia) is a slowly progressing blood, and bone marrow disease that usually occurs during or after middle age and rarely occurs in children.
CML is more common in males than in females (male to female ratio of 1.4:1) and appears more commonly in the elderly with a median age at diagnosis of 65 years. Exposure to ionizing radiation appears to be a risk factor, based on a 50-fold higher incidence of CML in Hiroshima and Nagasaki nuclear bombing survivors. The rate of CML in these individuals seems to peak about ten years after exposure.
Symptoms may include Fever, night sweats, bone pain, and weight loss. When tiredness, fever, and an enlarged spleen occur during the blast phase, it is called a blast crisis.
CML is diagnosed with tests and procedures such as complete blood count (CBC), bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, cytogenic analysis of the blood and bone marrow, and reports that address the Philadelphia chromosome and molecular assay of the blood or bone marrow looking for bcr-abl gene.
To diagnose the blast phase, at least 20% of peripheral white blood cells or nucleated bone marrow cells must be blasts.
Treatment of CML has improved with tyrosine kinase inhibitors which block the action of this molecule and its effects on white blood cell production. Standard chemotherapy agents are used along with immunotherapy (interferon) and bone marrow transplantation.
Blast phase is the final phase in the evolution of CML. It behaves like acute leukemia with rapid progression and short survival.
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