Plastic Cosmetic Surgery: Procedure Types and Information
Disabled World: Revised/Updated: 2019/10/24
Synopsis: Cosmetic or plastic surgery is a medical specialty concerned with body and face correction or restoration of form and function. Reconstructive plastic surgery is usually performed to improve function, but it may be done to approximate a normal appearance. On average, 30% of all patients seeking regenerative procedures such as eye lifts and face lifts are men.
Plastic surgery is defined as a medical specialty concerned with the "correction" or restoration of form and function. Though cosmetic or aesthetic surgery is the best-known kind of plastic surgery, plastic surgery is not necessarily cosmetic; and includes many types of reconstructive surgery, Craniofacial surgery, hand surgery, microsurgery, and the treatment of burns. The most popular surgeries are Botox, liposuction, eyelid surgery, breast implants, nose jobs, and facelifts.
In plastic surgery, the transfer of skin tissue (skin grafting) is a very common procedure. Skin grafts can be taken from the recipient or donors:
- Allografts are taken from a donor of the same species.
- Xenografts are taken from a donor of a different species.
- Autografts are taken from the recipient. If absent or deficient of natural tissue, alternatives can be cultured sheets of epithelial cells in vitro or synthetic compounds, such as integra, which consists of silicone and bovine tendon collagen with glycosaminoglycans.
Usually, good results are expected from plastic surgery that emphasizes careful planning of incisions so that they fall in the line of natural skin folds or lines, appropriate choice of wound closure, use of best available suture materials, and early removal of exposed sutures so that the wound is held closed by buried sutures.
Reconstructive plastic surgery is performed to correct functional impairments caused by burns; traumatic injuries, such as facial bone fractures and breaks; congenital abnormalities, such as cleft palates or cleft lips; developmental abnormalities; infection and disease; and cancer or tumors.
Reconstructive plastic surgery is usually performed to improve function, but it may be done to approximate a normal appearance.
The most common reconstructive procedures are tumor removal, laceration repair, scar repair, hand surgery, and breast reduction.
Some other common reconstructive surgical procedures include breast reconstruction after a mastectomy, cleft lip and palate surgery, contracture surgery for burn survivors, and creating a new outer ear when one is congenitally absent.
Aesthetic plastic surgery involves techniques intended for the "enhancement" of appearance through surgical and medical techniques, and is specifically concerned with maintaining normal appearance, restoring it, or enhancing it beyond the average level toward some aesthetic ideal.
On average, 30% of all patients seeking regenerative procedures such as eye lifts and face lifts are men. In addition, data from the American Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery states that male plastic surgery has increased 121% over the past 10 years.
The most common cosmetic surgeries are breast augmentation, liposuction, nasal surgery, eyelid surgery and abdominoplasty. Other plastic surgery procedures include:
- Abdominoplasty (tummy tuck): Reshaping and firming of the abdomen.
- Blepharoplasty (eyelid surgery): Reshaping of upper/ lower eyelids including Asian blepharoplasty.
- Brachioplasty (Arm lift): Reducing excess skin and fat between the underarm and the elbow.
- Browplasty (brow lift or forehead lift): Elevates eyebrows, smooths forehead skin.
- Buttock augmentation (butt implant): Enhancement of the buttocks using silicone implants or fat grafting (Brazilian butt lift) and transfer from other areas of the body.
- Calf Augmentation: Silicone implants or fat transfer to add bulk to calf muscles.
- Cheek augmentation (cheek implant): Implants to the cheek(s).
- Cheiloplasty: Surgical reconstruction of the lip.
- Cryolipolysis: Mmedical device used to destroy fat cells. Its principle relies on controlled cooling for non-invasive local reduction of fat deposits to reshape body contours.
- Cryoneuromodulation: Treatment of superficial and subcutaneous tissue structures using gaseous nitrous oxide, including temporary wrinkle reduction, temporary pain reduction, treatment of dermatologic conditions, and focal cryo-treatment of tissue.
- Fillers injections: Collagen, fat, and other tissue filler injections, such as hyaluronic acid.
- Genioplasty: Augmentation of the chin with an individual's bones or with the use of an implant, usually silicone, by suture of the soft tissue.
- Jaw reduction: Reduction of the mandible angle to smooth out an angular jaw and creating a slim jaw.
- Labiaplasty: Surgical reduction and reshaping of the labia.
- Laser Skin Rejuvenation or laser resurfacing: Lessening of depth in pores of the face.
- Lip enhancement: Surgical improvement of lips' fullness through enlargement.
- Liposuction (suction lipectomy): Removal of fat deposits by traditional suction technique or ultrasonic energy to aid fat removal.
- Breast augmentations (breast implant or boob job): Augmentation of the breasts by means of fat grafting, saline, or silicone gel prosthetics, which was initially performed to women with micromastia.
- Reduction mammoplasty (breast reduction): Removal of skin and glandular tissue, which is done to reduce back and shoulder pain in women with gigantomastia and for men with gynecomastia.
- Mastopexy (breast lift): Lifting or reshaping of breasts to make them less saggy, often after weight loss (after a pregnancy, for example). It involves removal of breast skin as opposed to glandular tissue.
- Midface lift (cheek lift): Tightening of the cheeks.
- Neck lift: Tightening of lax tissues in the neck. This procedure is often combined with a facelift for lower face rejuvenation.
- Orthognathic Surgery: Altering the upper and lower jaw bones (through osteotomy) to correct jaw alignment issues and correct the teeth alignment.
- Otoplasty (ear surgery/ear pinning): Reshaping of the ear, most often done by pinning the protruding ear closer to the head.
- Phalloplasty (penile surgery): Construction (or reconstruction) of a penis or, sometimes, artificial modification of the penis by surgery, often for cosmetic purposes.
- Rhinoplasty (nose job): Reshaping of the nose.
- Rhytidectomy (face lift): Removal of wrinkles and signs of aging from the face.
- Zygoma reduction plasty: Reducing the facial width by performing osteotomy and resecting part of the zygomatic bone and arch.
Craniofacial surgery is divided into pediatric and adult craniofacial surgery.
- Pediatric craniofacial surgery mostly revolves around the treatment of congenital anomalies of the craniofacial skeleton and soft tissues, such as cleft lip and palate, craniosynostosis, and pediatric fractures.
- Adult craniofacial surgery deals mostly with fractures and secondary surgeries (such as orbital reconstruction) along with orthognathic surgery.
Plastic Surgeon Qualifications
After medical school, all surgeons must go through years of hands-on training, residency programs, and specialty training. Licenses represent a bare minimum of qualifications. They are state-issued, but are not specialty-specific; they merely allow an individual to provide a public medical service. So while a diploma and license are required, they do not prove that you have found a board certified plastic surgery source.
A term used frequently, but which professional societies determine their qualifications. The American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS), for example, requires a proven level of competence, such as 6 years of training and surgical experience, as well as 3 years of plastic surgery experience. They also have ethical and professional standards.
Membership in another respected organization, the American Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons (ASAPS):
Means a plastic surgeon is board certified by the American Board of Plastic Surgery (ABPS), participates in accredited Continuing Medical Education programs, and has demonstrated at least 2 years of aesthetic surgery experience. Members must adhere to a Code of Ethics and operate in an accredited facility.
Look for ABPS board certified plastic surgeons who are members of ASPS - or better, of ASAPS. While these certifications do not guarantee a surgeon can deliver the results you desire, they do represent proof of a basic skill set. Choose a plastic surgeon based on artistic aesthetic and personality. Don't be afraid to ask questions and probe; get to know your plastic surgeon.
Aesthetic or Cosmetic Procedure Facts and Statistics
- The father of modern plastic surgery is generally considered to have been Sir Harold Gillies. A New Zealand otolaryngologist working in London.
- The most common reconstructive procedures are tumor removal, laceration repair, scar repair, hand surgery, and breast reduction plasty.
- Treatments for the plastic repair of a broken nose are first mentioned in the Edwin Smith Papyrus, a transcription of an Ancient Egyptian medical text, dated to the Old Kingdom from 3000 to 2500 BC.
- Researchers believe that plastic surgery obsession is linked to psychological disorders
- Reconstructive plastic surgery is performed to correct functional impairments caused by burns; traumatic injuries, such as facial bone fractures and breaks; congenital abnormalities, such as cleft palates or cleft lips; developmental abnormalities; infection and disease; and cancer or tumors.
- Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a disorder resulting in the sufferer becoming preoccupied with what they regard as defects in their bodies or faces.
- Cosmetic surgical procedures increased almost 9 percent, with over 1.6 million procedures in 2010.
- Rhinoplasty remains the most requested surgical procedure for both sexes for the fifth consecutive year.
- 15.6 million cosmetic procedures, including both minimally-invasive and surgical, were performed in the United States in 2014, an increase of 3 percent since 2013.
- In 2014, facelifts, brow-lifts, and blepharoplasty were most performed on adults over the age of 55.
- Women continue to be the driving force for facial plastic surgery and make up 82 percent of all surgical and non-surgical procedures performed in 2014.
- Americans spent nearly $10.7 billion on cosmetic procedures in 2010. Of that total almost $6.6 billion was spent on surgical procedures; $1.9 billion was spent on injectable procedures; $1.8 billion was spent on skin rejuvenation procedures; and almost $500 million was spent on other nonsurgical procedures including laser hair removal and laser treatment of leg veins.
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